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Ethics of Practicing Aromatherapy in Massage Practice

Ethics of Practicing Aromatherapy or
Selling Aromatherapy Products in your massage practice.
Using aromatherapy can enhance our practice and provide another aspect of healing for clients. Before you start each session with a client, it is important to ask them directly if they would like you to use aromatherapy in the session. This is part of the process of Engaging a Client to participate in their healing session and is essential in creating strong boundaries within your practice. It is also necessary to be aware that not everyone likes smells and that if you are storing many different oils in your room, the mixture of scents can be overwhelming and even toxic. You are essentially violating a clients’ boundary with the use of essential oils without having their informed consent. Being aware of the affects we have on clients is important in starting and building a massage practice.

I had a client tell me a story about a bad experience with this situation. The client was referred by her MD for treatment of back pain to a massage therapist. The massage therapist had her room full of essential oils and proceeded to use them in the treatment. The client was led to believe that she was going to this person for a medical treatment and while aromatherapy can be used medically, she had no understanding of it as a client. She was overwhelmed by all the smells in the office and left feeling slightly ill and never went back to say the least.

We also need to be aware of how most people will not tell you the truth about what they need. They often come to us expecting us to know what is best for them and trust us to take care of them. They won’t speak up easily.

Selling Essential Oils to Clients

If you are considering selling aromatherapy products to your clients, please be aware of the ethical issues involved when selling products to clients. Clients will often be easily persuaded by us because they perceive us to have more knowledge than them or may also feel an obligation to us because we have provided a nurturing experience for them. This is called transference. When we try to combine this with selling oils (or any other products) we need to keep in mind whether we are selling this for our benefit or theirs. When we ask clients to purchase something, we are asking them to further trust us.

We can become more aware of how we influence clients and the issues involved with our practices through the process of supervision. You can find out more about supervision and start changing the profession by participating in a peer supervision group. The more conscious you become of yourselves, the more successful you will be in business!

Julie Onofrio, LMP

The Power of Aromatherapy

The Power of Aromatherapy
by Rob Gilbert

As the cost of health care skyrockets, Americans are increasingly turning to alternative medicine, including herbal remedies like Aromatherapy. Most people are aware of Aromatherapy, but there are many misconceptions about the science behind it and the role that Aromatherapists play in selecting the most effective herbal extracts. The idea of inhaling fragrant oils extracted from plants and trees to treat a medical condition may seem unscientific to many, but the power of Aromatherapy comes from its connection to herbal medicine, which is increasingly finding its way into mainstream culture.

In the U.S., large pharmaceutical companies dominate the over-the-counter and prescription drug markets, but public acceptance of alternative medicine, including Aromatherapy, is growing. According to a recent survey by the U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention, of the 31,000 adults involved in the study, 36 percent said they had used some form of alternative or complementary medicine.

While the popularity of herbal medicine is a relatively new phenomenon in the U.S., Aromatherapy dates back centuries and its use is widespread in Europe and Asia. The term “Aromatherapy” traces its roots back to 1937, when a French chemist named Rene’ Maurice Gattefosse, burned his hand during one of his experiments and applied the nearest available liquid, lavender oil, to the burn. The oil eased the pain and Gattefosse began to experiment with other plant oils to discover their properties and medicinal potential.

The essential oils used in aromatherapy are believed to contain therapeutic properties that may offer an alternative to synthetically manufactured pharmaceuticals. According to the spokesperson for the National Association of Holistic Aromatherapy (NAHA), Kelly Holland Azzaro, RA, CCAP, LMBT, “Essential oils have specific chemical compositions, giving them their unique scent as well as therapeutic properties. Once an Aromatherapist studies the chemistry aspect, this added dimension is another tool for the Aromatherapist when choosing specific oils.”

Aromatherapy typically involves the controlled application to the skin or inhalation of aromatic essential oils derived from plants, flowers, and wood resins. The fragrant oils are absorbed by the body and interact with the olfactory system to achieve the desired effect. Aromatic essential oils are commonly applied directly to the skin during a massage, with the oil being absorbed into the body through the skin. “With essential oils, it is the chemical composition of the oil that gives it its therapeutic effect,” says Holland Azzaro.

The plant oils used in Aromatherapy differ from pharmaceutical medicines in that they use the whole plant and not just a single active ingredient. Practitioners of Aromatherapy believe that aromatic plants work holistically and are safest and most effective in their natural state, contrasting with the pharmaceutical approach of isolating an active ingredient and concentrating the dosage.

The U.S. government classifies plant oils used in Aromatherapy as Dietary Supplements, which are regulated by the Dietary Supplement and Health and Education Act of 1994. The Act exempted Dietary Supplements from the pre-market safety evaluations required of other food ingredients.

In 1962, Congress passed a law requiring that drugs be proven effective before they could be sold to the public. Economic and regulatory factors account for the major drug companies’ disregard for research into Aromatherapy. According to drug industry estimates, FDA approval of a new drug can take from 5 to 12 years with costs into the hundreds of millions. The cost of research into the safety and effectiveness of drugs compels the major pharmaceutical companies to focus their attention on medicine that they can patent, which allows them to recoup their investment in research. Because plant extracts in their natural state cannot be patented, companies are reluctant to spend research money on herbal remedies, including Aromatherapy.

While the looser regulatory environment made it easier to bring new purported herbal remedies and supplements to market, some question the safety and quality of the products now available. The lack of standard dosages and weaker quality control measures, some fear, threaten the safety of consumers of herbal products. The most serious risk can be an herb’s reaction with other medications. Those taking prescription or over-the-counter medicine should consult their doctor before experimenting with herbal medicine.

The essential oils used in Aromatherapy can be applied in many forms, including ointment, tea, tincture, compress, or poultice. Aromatherapists often blend essential oils into a compound that can be used as an oil or spray. Some scents can conjure up pleasant memories, which might explain some of the perceived effects of Aromatherapy. Consistent with their holistic approach, practitioners believe Aromatherapy promotes physical, mental, and spiritual health.

The science behind Aromatherapy, as with other forms of alternative medicine, involves some subjectivity. Inconsistent distillation of the plant oils explains part of the difficulty of obtaining consistent and reliable research in this area. For Aromatherapy to be safe and effective, you must use quality essential oils, which can be quite expensive. Fortunately, due to their concentrated nature, effects can be achieved using only a small amount of an essential oil.

The subjective element makes it difficult for researchers to explain Aromatherapy’s perceived therapeutic characteristics. A given olfactory sensation might trigger a positive response in one person, while another person may have no reaction to the same scent.

Essential oils can be obtained directly from an Aromatherapist, health food stores, through various distributors, holistic medicine practitioners, massage therapists, and, of course, on the internet. Maryanne Gilbert, a massage therapist in Golden, uses Aromatherapy blends in her massage oils to personalize the massage experience. Gilbert explains, “If a client arrives for a massage after a stressful day, I’ll add a little lavender to the massage oil and the client will begin to relax and calm down almost immediately.” More information can be obtained through her website or her massage studio at (720) 988-6980.

Licensing requirements for Aromatherapists vary by state. Aromatherapists can become Registered Aromatherapists (R.A.) by passing a test administered by The Aromatherapy Registration Council (ARC). More information about the R.A. credential can be found at Explains Holland Azarro, “Some Aromatherapists only work with Aromatherapy, in which they offer consultation and teach the uses of essential oils, and some will also consult with larger companies about formulations for a line of products. It is a wonderful and diverse group of people that can be found throughout the Aromatherapy industry.”

Laraine Kyle, RN, MSN, CMT, with the Institute of Integrative Aromatherapy in Boulder, Colorado, can provide the names of local Aromatherapists and additional information on Aromatherapy at or Kyle, a noted authority on Aromatherapy, has developed an herbal mosquito repellent she describes as ten times more effective than DEET. More information about Aromatherapy, as well as Kyle’s mosquito repellent, can be obtained by contacting the Institute of Integrative Aromatherapy at (303) 545-2002.

Rob Gilbert co-owns with his wife Health & Harmony Massage, LLC located in historic downtown Golden. Rob creates and sells aromatherapy blends for Health & Harmony Massage. He most recently blended an energizing aromatherapy spray he calls Gettyup! which he uses during his “day job” as a paralegal. Rob can be contacted via email at or phone 720-988-6980.

Aromatherapy: Making Dollars out of Scents

Aromatherapy: Making Dollars out of Scents

Stephen Barrett, M.D.

Aromatherapy — sometimes called aroma therapy — is described by its proponents as “the therapeutic use of the essential oils of plants.” The word “essential” does not refer to nutritional value but to the volatile, aromatic components that are the “essence” of the plant. Essential oils are said to be highly concentrated substances extracted from flowers, leaves, stalks, fruits, and roots, and also distilled from resins. They are alleged to contain hormones, vitamins, antibiotics, and antiseptics and to represent the “life force,” “spirit,” or “soul” of the plant [1]. The oils are administered in small quantities through inhalation, massage, or other applications to the skin. Occasionally, a product is taken internally. The products include diffusers, lamps, pottery, candles, pendants, earrings, shampoos, skin creams, lotions, and bath salts, and shower gels. Health Foods Business estimated that the total of aromatherapy products sold through health-food stores was about $59 million in 1995 and $105 million in 1996.

Pleasant odors can be enjoyable and may enhance people’s efforts to relax. However, there is no evidence that aromatherapy products provide the health benefits claims by their proponents.

Dubious Claims

Aroma Vera, Inc., of Los Angeles, has falsely claimed that “essential oils have the power to purify the air we breathe while they relax, stimulate, soothe or sharpen our senses . . . a wonderful antidote to the air pollution and ‘scentsory’ imbalance of modern life.” It also claims that inhaling the scents “balances the biological background,” “revitalizes the cells,” and produces a “strong energizing effect on the sympathetic nervous system.” Other claims in the company’s brochures include:

Product Name Features/Claimed Benefits
Calming Lends a slight sense of euphoria – perfect for unwinding after a stressful day
Clear Mind Freshens and sharpens the mind, making it more alert
Drainer/Detoxification Promotes elimination of toxins, helps tone and firm the body
Meditation Facilitates deep relaxation
Mental Power Designed for sustained intellectual power and focus
Purifier Ideal to rid the atmosphere of smoke and heavy odors
Respiration Helps open the lungs and clear respiration
Sacred Helps open higher energy centers
Slimming/Circulation Promotes circulation and encourages elimination of excess fluids

Joint Adventure, of Rogers, Arkansas, states that essential oils can be used for “many different purposes from athlete’s foot to enlightenment and almost every point between!” The products in its 1997 catalog include Love Potion, Germ Immune, and Smoker’s Remedy. Its Tropical Sun is claimed to “Increase circulation and warm your body . . . helps fight infection while strengthening the immune system.”

Another company touts aromatherapy’s promise as “a mood alternative, as biofeedback tied in to relaxation, stress release, concentration and meditation.” Yet another describes the oils as “an alternative to synthetic drugs to feel good.” A practitioner has claimed that the technique “addresses the nervous system and the energy fields of the body. It soothes the body, cleans the body, clears the body, and tones the body.” The Complete Book of Essential Oils and Aromatherapy, by Valerie Ann Worwood, states that there are about 300 essential oils and that they constitute an extremely effective medical system. The web site of Beyond Aromatherapy has stated (allegedly quoting Hippocrates) “There is a remedy for every illness to be found in nature.” Its online catalog includes descriptions of “ancient healing uses,” astrological correspondence, and Chinese medicine characteristics of more than 80 essential oils.

Lampberger Singapore Network says its products can provide “sweet childhood,” “summer romance,” “aphrodisiac, and improved memory and can alleviate asthma, bronchitis, flu, insomnia, headache, agitation, elevated blood pressure,

Aromatherapy for Common Ailments, by Shirley Price, tabulates which oils are to be used for more than 40 problems, including depression, sex-drive problems, bronchitis, athlete’s foot, high blood pressure, cystitis, head lice. Her table identifies from three to nine oils “likely to help” each problem. She reassures:

With self-help aromatherapy, you will be using oils recommended for a particular ailment or preventative treatment, but it should not take you long to discover which of them work best for you as an individual, particularly since simply liking the aroma of an oil may indicate that it will help you.

The Aromatherapy Workbook charts more than one hundred therapeutic applications. Author Marcel Lavabre maintains:

Even though it can relieve symptoms, aromatherapy primarily aims at curing the causes of disease. The main therapeutic action of essential oils consists in strengthening the organs and their functions, and acting on the defense mechanisms of the body. They do not do the job for the body; they help the body do its own job and thus do not weaken the organism. Their action is enhanced by all natural therapies that aim to restore the vitality of the individual.

Dubious “Certification”

The American Alliance of Aromatherapy, a trade association, publishes a quarterly Journal of Aromatherapy to keep readers informed of pertinent research, books, and news. The American Aromatherapy Association offers “certification” based on attendance at two 3-day weekends plus submission of a thesis that includes case studies. The course includes such topics as internal methods of treatment, essential oils in healing, addressing common health problems, and how to market yourself. The International Association of Aromatherapists has “accredited” an eleven-month correspondence course with six seminars and two final exams. Completion of the program leads to “certification” as an “Aromatherapist Practitioner.” Aromatherapy Seminars, the educational division of Aroma Vera, offers “5-day certification” and other courses and claims to have over 3,500 graduates. The National Association for Holistic Aromatherapy sponsors conferences and publishes Scentsitivity Quarterly.

Insufficient Regulation

The FDA regulates perfumes as cosmetics, which it defines as “articles to be introduced into or otherwise applied to the body to cleanse, beautify, promote attractiveness or alter appearance.” A general claim that a perfume’s aroma is good or beneficial is a cosmetic claim that does not require FDA approval. In 1986, the agency warned that marketing a scent with a preventive or therapeutic claim would make the product a drug subject to regulatory action. Although several manufacturers have done so, the FDA has not made them stop.

A private action may have some impact. Under California law, any person or organization can sue to stop the fraudulent activities of any person or company either located in California or affecting the state’s consumers. These suits are interesting because if the defendant cannot persuade a judge that its claims are true, the judge can prohibit them and assess high penalties. In 1997, Los Angeles attorney Morsé Mehrban charged that Lafabre and Aroma Vera had violated the California Business and Professions Code by advertising that its products could promote health and well-being, relax the body, relax the mind, enhance mood, purify the air, are antidotes to air pollution, relieve fatigue, tone the body, nourish the skin, promote circulation, alleviate feminine cramps, and do about 50 other things [2]. The National Council Against Health Fraud served as plaintiff, and I served as an expert witness in the case. In September 2000, the case was settled out of court with a $5,700 payment to Mehrban and a court-approved stipulation [3] and order prohibiting the defendants from making 57 of the disputed claims in advertising within California [4].

Berwick A. Holistic Aromatherapy: Balance the Body and Soul with Essential Oils. St. Paul, MN: Llewellyn Publications, 1994.
Barrett S. Aromatherapy company sued for false advertising. Quackwatch, Sept 25, 2000.
Stipulation for Judgment. National Council Against Health Fraud, Inc., v. Aroma Vera, Inc., et al. Superior Court No. BC183903. September 24, 2000.
Horowitz DA. Judgment (pursuant to stipulation). National Council Against Health Fraud, Inc., v. Aroma Vera, Inc., et al. Superior Court No. BC183903. October 11, 2000.


Since the publication of Duke’s first phytochemical works (Duke 1992a, 1992b), we have almost doubled the phytochemicals, biological activities and species in our database. With this new contribution, we include much new data in the aromatic mint family, Lamiaceae. Data on the mint family are presented here in much the same format and with many of the same caveats and interpretations as before.

Aggregated vs. Non-Aggregated Entries

The latest volume differs from earlier volumes in that we maintain the integrity of many entries, publishing the phytochemical quantitative data for a given analysis, rather than strictly aggregating the data. Over the years it has become clear to us that the aggregated data, which report the highs and lows for a given phytochemical in parts per million (ppm), are most useful for showing the range of variation of these individual phytochemicals, which can be quite striking. For some species of thyme, this variation can be as much as 13,900-fold.

One common mistaken interpretation of the aggregated data is that a species might appear to be high in two closely related compounds, for example thymol and carvacrol. However, the non-aggregated analyses show that, rather than positive correlations between levels of closely related compounds, there is often compensation – when one compound is raised in quantity, another is lowered.


We have learned in the last five years, that most species have many phytochemicals with many biological activities and that many of the phytochemicals we use for medicines, especially the antibiotics (anthelminthics, bactericides, fungicides, viricides, vermifuges, etc.), serve as natural pesticides for the species containing them. As we would expect, evolution seems to favor a synergy among such pesticides, which often carries over into their medical potential.

By examining the non-aggregated entries, one can, through various computational techniques, ask which of the mint analyses cited in this volume have the greatest reported variety or total concentration of phytochemicals with a specific activity (for instance which mints have the greatest number of antispasmodic compounds and which have the greatest total reported concentration of one or all of these spasmolytic compounds). A number of tools have been developed by the authors to allow these types of queries to be made for the entire phytochemical database (including the mints) on the Internet (Beckstrom-Sternberg and Duke) at the following URL:

Properties of Aromatic Compounds

Because of the unique properties of aromatic compounds, which are important for both herbal medicine and aromatherapy, there’s more to aromatherapy than meets the nose. It has been clearly demonstrated that many of the aromatic compounds are biologically active whether inhaled, ingested, or applied topically. Cineole for example, via its CNS activities, can improve a rodent’s ability to work its way through a maze, whether ingested or inhaled. Likewise, cineole, as well as other aromatic compounds, can speed up and increase the transdermal absorption of other compounds, sometimes by as much as 100-fold. The implications of this are inspiring as well as sobering. The increased absorbtion allows smaller amounts of an active compound to be used, and puts it directly into the bloodstream rather than passing through the gut, where it could be altered or inactivated. On the down side, too much of a good thing could be fatal, pointing to the need for standardization of topically applied compounds and their carriers, especially in light of the huge variation in the concentrations of plant chemical constituents.


One interesting speculation to us is that rosemary, the herb of remembrance, may in fact be preventively active, perhaps even transdermally, against Alzheimer’s disease. Rosmarinic acid, namesake of rosemary, has three different activities that might be useful in Alzheimer’s disease: anticomplement activity, antioxidant activity, and choline sparing activity. There are over a dozen antioxidants in rosemary and more than five anticholinesterase compounds. By analyzing the non-aggregated, individual assay data we can see which ecotype or variety is best endowed with these biologically active compounds. This ecotypic variation could form the basis of an industry dedicated to cultivating specialized ecotypes of the same species for different medicinal applications.

Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

With the new labeling laws signed by President Clinton on October 15, 1994, it seems legal and possible for herbalists to say that rosemary contains these compounds, but not to say that rosemary will prevent or decelerate Alzheimer’s. We believe that rosemary, the herb of remembrance, can be proved useful in Alzheimer’s, and that it may be more useful than some FDA-approved drugs for Alzheimer’s. However, we doubt that anyone will invest the required 500 million to prove that rosemary is safe and efficacious for Alzheimer’s. So for economic reasons, we may not be getting the best medicine for Alzheimer’s. It would be difficult to secure a patent for rosemary for Alzheimer’s. Strangely though, one could analyze different varieties of rosemary to find which one was richest in the anticholinesterase compounds and patent that variety as unique phytochemically, to be clonally reproduced, under ecological conditions that increase the quantities of the anticholinesterase compounds.


Of course, as new data accumulates, other edible and non-edible mints may prove even richer in antialzheimeran phytochemicals. Mints other than lavender and melissa may prove richer in sedative compounds. Mints other than peppermint and spearmint may prove richer in carminative compounds and antipruritic phytochemicals. Mints other than perilla may prove richer in breast-cancer preventive phytochemicals like carvone, limonene, and perillyl-alcohol. That’s what’s so exciting about this new field we call aromathematics (so as not to offend long-term advocates of aromatherapy), which is here defined as the study of aromatic compounds and their biological activities; with each new detailed analysis published, a new candidate may emerge for several diseases.

Standardized Extracts vs. the Silver Bullet

We feel that in many cases, standardized extracts of these potent mints, may be safer and just as efficacious as many of the more expensive synthetic options. Consider the following example. If your physician has diagnosed you correctly (with Lyme disease, the physician is wrong nearly half the time), and if you do not have any co-morbid factors (most of us do), and if you are not deficient in some mineral, vitamin, or vital phytochemical that has not yet proven vital (and most of us are deficient in at least one), then the physician’s silver bullet may help. But if all three conditions are not satisfied, then the safe herbs may have more to offer. The homeostatic human body is good at sequestering from an herb tea those phytochemicals that it needs and rejecting things it doesn’t need. Thus the menu of thousands of phytochemicals in an herb tea may give the human body opportunity to select those that it needs, rejecting those that might be harmful.

Herbs and Herb Gardening Resource Guide

Herbs and Herb Gardening: An Annotated Bibliography and Resource Guide

Compiled By:

Suzanne DeMuth

Alternative Farming
Systems Information Center
, Information Centers Branch

National Agricultural Library, Agricultural Research Service, U.S.
Department of Agriculture
Beltsville, Maryland 20705-2351


1.  Introduction

2.  Books

   2A.  Early American Plant Usage and Heirloom Gardens

   2B.  General Aspects of Herbs

   2C.  History of Herbs

   2D.  Botany, Chemistry, and Nomenclature of Herbs

   2E.  Herb Gardens and Gardening

   2F.  Herb Gardening, Regional Aspects

   2G.  Herb Gardens to Visit in the U.S. and Canada

   2H.  Home Gardening with Focus on Herbs

   2I.  Cooking with Herbs and Spices

   2J.  Fragrant and Dye Plants and Gardens, Including Herb Crafting

   2K.  Medicinal Herbs and Health

   2L.  Marketing Herbs

3.  Resource Guides

4.  Proceedings of the National Herb Growing and Marketing Conferences

5.  Videos

6.  Bibliographies

7.  Current Periodicals

   7A.  Early American Plant Usage and Heirloom Gardens

   7B.  General Aspects of Herbs

   7C.  Home Gardening with Focus on Herbs

   7D.  Cooking with Herbs and Spices

   7E.  Medicinal Herbs and Health

   7F.  Marketing Herbs

8.  Selected Articles in Periodicals

   8A.  Early American Plant Usage and Heirloom Gardens

   8B.  History of Herbs

   8C.  Botany, Chemistry, and Nomenclature of Herbs

   8D.  Herb Gardens and Gardening

   8E.  Herb Gardens, Regional Aspects

   8F.  Herb Gardens to Visit in the U.S. and Canada

   8G.  Cooking with Herbs and Spices

   8H.  Fragrant and Dye Plants and Gardens, Including Herb Crafting

   8I.  Medicinal Herbs and Health

   8J.  Marketing Herbs

9.  Indexing and Abstracting Publications and Services

10. Membership and Resource Organizations and Services

11. Mail-order Suppliers

Book Title Index

Author Index

Top of Document

About the Alternative Farming Systems Information Center

Document Delivery Services to Individuals

See also:

  • Growing Herbs: Selected Information Sources, 1996-2003. Compiled and annotated by Rebecca Mazur, Research and Reader Services, National Agricultural Library. April 2004.

  • Growing for the Medicinal Herb Market Selected Sources and Resources. Compiled and annotated by Suzanne DeMuth and Mary Gold, Alternative Farming Systems Information Center, National Agricultural Library. February 1998.

Go to: Author Index |
Book Title Index |
Top of Document | Contents

Citation no.: 1, 10, 20, 30,
40, 50, 60, 70,
80, 90, 100, 110,
120, 130, 140, 150,
160, 170, 180, 190,
200, 210, 220, 230,
240, 250, 250, 260,
270, 280, 290

Aromatherapy in the Mediterranean Fruit Fly

Title: Aromatherapy in the Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae): Sterile Males Exposed to Ginger Root Oil in Pre-Release, Storage Boxes Display Increased Mating Competitiveness in Field Cage Trials.

Submitted to: Journal of Economic Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: January 1, 2004
Publication Date: June 10, 2004
Citation: Shelly, T.E., McInnis, D.O., Pahio, E., Edu, J. 2004. Aromatherapy in the mediterranean fruit fly (diptera: tephritidae): sterile males exposed to ginger root oil in pre-release, storage boxes display increased mating competitiveness in field cage trials. Journal of Economic Entomology. 97: 846-853.

Interpretive Summary: The use of an aromatic chemical to increase the mating ability of Mediterranean fruit flies (medflies) has been investigated in Hawaii and found to be significant. The aromatic compound, ginger root oil, has been demonstrated to be effective in raising the mating ability of medfly males ca. 2-3 fold in outdoor field cage mating tests. This rise in ability even has come from the mere exposure of the aroma to the males for a few hours as young adults. The current experiment investigated the effectiveness of using the standard adult fly containers ( ca. 35,000 pupae/box) for conducting the fly exposures prior to fly release in the field. We found that exposing the flies as adults significantly improved mating ability at doses of ginger oil/box up to 2mls, but not at 2 mls. Exposing the insects as pupae then as adults by placing the aroma prior to fly emergence resulted in increased mating ability after using 1.0 mls but not at o.25 mls/box. These results confirm the previous work about the effectiveness of using ginger root oil as a mating stimulant for medfly males in SIT programs, and have demonstrated the usefulness of standard large¿scale holding containers in adequately treating male flies prior to release.

Technical Abstract: Previous research showed that exposure to ginger root, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, oil increased the mating success of mass-reared, sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). This work, however, involved the exposure of small groups of males (n = 25) in small containers (volume 400 ml). Several sterile male release programs use plastic adult rearing containers (so-called PARC boxes; hereafter termed storage boxes; 0.48 by 0.60 by 0.33 m) to hold mature pupae and newly emerged adults before release (36,000 flies per box). The objective of the current study was to determine whether the application of ginger root oil to individual storage boxes increases the mating competitiveness of sterile C. capitata males. Irradiated pupae were placed in storage boxes 2 d before adult emergence, and in the initial experiment (adult exposure) ginger root oil was applied 5 d later (i.e., 3 d after peak adult emergence) for 24 h at doses of 0.0625, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 ml. In a second experiment (pupal-adult exposure), ginger root oil was applied to storage boxes immediately after pupal placement and left for 6 d (i.e., 4 d after peak adult emergence) at doses of 0.25 and 1.0 ml. Using field cages, we conducted mating trials in which ginger root oil-exposed (treated) or nonexposed (control) sterile males competed against wild-like males for copulations with wild-like females. After adult exposure, treated males had significantly higher mating success than control males for all doses of ginger root oil, except 2.0 ml. After pupal-adult exposure, treated males had a significantly higher mating success than control males for the 1.0-ml but not the 0.25-ml dose of ginger root oil. The results suggest that ginger root oil can be used in conjunction with prerelease, storage boxes to increase the effectiveness of sterile insect release programs.

How Does Aromatherapy Work

Essential oils stimulates the powerful sense of smell. It is known that odors we smell have a significant impact on how we feel. In dealing with patients who have lost the sense of smell, doctors have found that a life without fragrance can lead to high incidence of psychiatric problems such as anxiety and depression. We have the capability to distinguish 10,000 different smells. It is believed that smells enter through cilia (the fine hairs lining the nose) to the limbic system, the part of the brain that controls our moods, emotions, memory and learning.

Studies with brain wave frequency has shown that smelling lavender increases alpha waves in the back of the head, which are associated with relaxation. Fragrance of Jasmine increases beta waves in the front of the head, which are associated with a more alert state.

Scientific studies have also shown that essential oils contain chemical components that can exert specific effects on the mind and body. Their chemistry is complex, but generally includes alcohols, esters, ketones, aldehydes, and terpenes.

The sense of smell is connected to the sense of taste. Our tongue will only taste sweet, sour, salt, and bitter. The other tastes are in fact only odors. There are at least twenty sensations normally referred to as tastes that are really odors. Aromatherapy is one factor that is used in connection with sense of smell and taste.

With aromatherapy, the brain will respond to the aroma of the essential oil by using a past memory with the smell. If the aroma is not familiar, the brain will create a new memory with it. Different scents will activate certain brain waves, which are sensitive to the thought and the emotions that we have.

Essential oils are going to have so many aromatherapy benefits to the mind and the body. The will help with memory, clarity, and also help with pain. You will generally have a feeling of well being and relaxation that you are looking for.

There are so many different scents that you can use in aromatherapy. You will find that you can have different pleasures with the different essential oils that are available to you. There is no better way for a relaxing and enjoying experience than to have the essential oils that are out there. You will want to use all the techniques and uses that are available to you.

You can use the essential aromatherapy oils for a massage, a bath or in a diffuser. Any way that you decide to use these delicious smells will help you and give you body the benefits that you are looking for. You will have less pains and aches to deal with as well as give your body the defense that it needs against illness and other problems for the body.

Aromatherapy Discussion

Aromatherapy means “treatment using scents”. It is a holistic treatment of caring for the body with pleasant smelling botanical oils such as rose, lemon, lavender and peppermint. The essential oils are added to the bath or massaged into the skin, inhaled directly or diffused to scent an entire room. Aromatherapy is used for the relief of pain, care for the skin, alleviate tension and fatigue and invigorate the entire body. Essential oils can affect the mood, alleviate fatigue, reduce anxiety and promote relaxation. When inhaled, they work on the brain and nervous system through stimulation of the olfactory nerves.

The essential oils are aromatic essences extracted from plants, flowers, trees, fruits, bark, grasses and seeds with distinctive therapeutic, psychological, and physiological properties, which improve and prevent illness. There are about 150 essential oils. Most of these oils have antiseptic properties; some are antiviral, anti-inflammatory, pain-relieving, antidepressant and expectorant. Other properties of the essential oils which are taken advantage of in aromatherapy are their stimulation, relaxation, digestion improvement, and diuretic properties. To get the maximum benefit from essential oils, it should be made from natural, pure raw materials. Synthetically made oils do not work.

Aromatherapy is one of the fastest growing fields in alternative medicine. It is widely used at home, clinics and hospitals for a variety of applications such as pain relief for women in labor pain, relieving pain caused by the side effects of the chemotherapy undergone by the cancer patients, and rehabilitation of cardiac patients.

Aromatherapy is already slowly getting into the mainstream. In Japan, engineers are incorporating aroma systems into new buildings. In one such application, the scent of lavender and rosemary is pumped into the customer area to calm down the waiting customers, while the perfumes from lemon and eucalyptus are used in the bank teller counters to keep the staff alert.

Aromatherapy had been around for 6000 years or more. The Greeks, Romans, and ancient Egyptians all used aromatherapy oils. The Egyptian physician Imhotep recommended fragrant oils for bathing, massage, and for embalming their dead nearly 6000 years ago. Imhotep is the Egyptian god of medicine and healing. Hippocrates, the father of modern medicine, used aromatherapy baths and scented massage. He used aromatic fumigations to rid Athens of the plague.

The modern era of aromatherapy is dawned in 1930 when the French chemist Rene Maurice Gattefosse coined the term aromatherapy for the therapeutic use of essential oils. He was fascinated by the benefits of lavender oil in healing his burned hand without leaving any scars. He started investigating the effect of other essential oils for healing and for their psychotherapeutic benefits.

During world war II, the French army surgeon Dr. Jean Valnet used essential oils as antiseptics. Later, Madame Marguerite Maury elevated aromatherapy as a holistic therapy. She started prescribing essential oils as remedy for her patients. She is also credited with the modern use of essential oils in massage.

Aromatherapy works the best when it works on the mind and body simultaneously.

Evening Primrose

Evening Primrose

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 Latin Name: oenothera biennis

Forms Available: oil

Evening Primrose Oil – Oenothera biennis – This is a pale yellow oil with a pleasant, light and nutty taste. Its color may vary based on growing conditions and batch. Extremely helpful in treating menstrual and pre-menstrual problems, eczema and psoriasis; useful in treating allergic skin problems. Add up to 10% of the carrier oil for massage and to any creams and lotions. Its healing action results from its high content of gamma linolenic acid, an essential fatty acid that is vital to cell and body functions and not produced by the body itself. It goes rancid quickly and should be stored in a cool place or refrigerated.

Aromatherapy & Health Uses: can be used in base oil in percentage of up to 10%

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