Latin Name: myristica fragrans. myristica offinalis
Alternative Name: nux moschata, myristica, yristica aromata
Forms Available: essential oil, ground

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Nutmeg – Myristica fragrans – Spicy, warm and sweet odor. Considered analgesic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, emmenagogue, parturient, and tonic.  Invigorates and stimulates the mind. Indicated for extreme tiredness and used in massage blends for aching joints because of its warming property. Not recommended for skin care. Should not be used during pregnancy at all.  Inhalation may cause nausea.  One drop of Nutmeg with 20-40 drops of Orange is wonderful for the home.  Very strong, can be irritating.  Blends well with citrus oils.

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Aromatherapy & Health Uses: Arthritis; Gout; Muscular Aches and Pains; Poor circulation; Rheumatism; Flatulence; Indigestion; Nausea; Sluggish Digestion; Bacterial Infection; Frigidity in Women; Impotence in Men; Neuralgia; Nervous Fatigue. Key Qualities: Aphrodisiac; Analgesic.

Other Uses: Nutmegs have long been carried as good luck charms, and are strung with star anise and tonka beans for a potent herbal necklace. Burn for prosperity., luck, psychic awareness, fortune, clairvoyance, divination, justice, and meditation.

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Aromatherapy101: 24 common aromatherapy terms you MUST know

Aromatherapy is a vast medicinal system comprising of many terminologies, extraction procedures and blending methodologies. Though not everyone can know everything about aromatherapy (but for an expert and licensed aromatherapist), as a beginner, you may need to know certain things about the science. This article will explain in brief the common terms used in the world of aromatherapy and essential oils.

Aromatherapy is a science of essential oils. As you know, there are many different kinds of essential oils in vogue right from the ancient times. Most of these oils are extracted by several types of methods. Some oils are called by unique names based on their properties or components. Here’s a glimpse of all of them:

1. Absolutes or concretes: Absolutes are essential oils in their pure form. They have strong aromas and are highly concentrated.

2. Botanical Names: A botanical name is the Latin name given to a plant species. Since there are  millions of species, botanists use botanical names to identify one species from another.

3. Common Name: The name in which an oil is addressed in common practice. Lavender, Basil, Bay, Hyssop etc. are common names.

4. Carrier Oils: Carrier oils or base oils or fixed oils are vegetable or plant oils that are used to dilute pure essential oils.

5. Hydrosols or Flora waters: These are by-products during extraction of essential oils. They too have medicinal properties and are used for general, less-severe treatments.

6. Dram: Unit of measurement which equals 1/8 of an ounce, used in aromatherapy.

7. Fragrance oils: Called perfume or potpourri oils, Fragrance Oils contain artificial fragrant substances, whereas essential oils contain only the pure essences of plants.

8. Infused oils: Carrier oils into which few medicinal herbs are infused (for extra therapeutic effects) are called infused oils.

9. CO2s: Oils which are extracted by using carbon dioxide are called CO2s.

10. Orifice reducer: A small, clear insert-like dropper used in essential oil bottles for easy dispensation of oil.

Essential oils are often referred to as stimulants, analgesic agents and ones with diuretic properties. Though these are medicinal terms and can be guessed by most of you, when it comes to aromatherapy, it is better not to make assumptions. Here are a few terms that describe the properties of essential oils:

11. Abortifacient: An oil which can cause abortion in a pregnant woman. Toxic oils are often abortifacients.

12. Analgesic: Oils that relieve pain and cause a soothing effect are analgesic

13. Anodyne: Oils that calm restless mind and iron out disturbed feelings or emotions and also offer pain relief are said to have anodyne properties.

14. Aphrodisiacs: Certain oils are used to arouse sexual desires. Such oils are referred to as aphrodisiacs.

15. Carminative: Carminative oils relieve gas in the digestive tract and also reduce bloating of stomach

16. Cicatrisant: Is an agent for healing wounds, cuts, gashes etc.

17. Depurative:
Depurative oils are highly efficient in cleansing the blood. They combat and eliminate impure elements and toxins in the blood.

18. Diuretics: Used in people who have problems with urination. Diuretic essential oils increase discharge of urine.

19. Emmenagogue: Essential oils that assist with PMS, menstruation or menopausal symptoms are referred this way.

20. Expectorant: These expel phlegm and mucous from the body

21. Febrifuge: Some oils are successful in combating fevers and are referred to have febrifuge properties.

22. Parturients: Oils which ease symptoms of pain in pregnant mothers and also aid in childbirth are said to have parturient properties.

23. Stimulants:
Essential oils that invigorate or energize a body are called as stimulants.

24. Tonics:
Essential oils which have a restorative and replenishing effect on the body are called tonics.

Left-over miracle waters: 9 healing benefits of Hydrosols

When aromatherapy was in its nascent stages (as a science of healing in ancient civilizations), floral waters were in vogue. The Egyptians, the Greeks and the Romans were known to have used hydrosols extensively for their healing and aesthetic properties. Since essential oils were produced only by the methods of solvent extraction, the Middle Ages paid little attention to essential oils and revered the hydrosols more. With the advent of the science of essential oils and aromatherapy, the floral waters suffered a backlash again. Only in the early 20th century, the aromatic pendulum shifted and hydrosols came to be recognized for their therapeutic properties.

What are hydrosols? Hydrosols are derived from the terms “hydro” (meaning water) and “sol” (meaning solution). These are left-over waters that remain in the extraction container after the steam-distillation of a plant. Hydrosols or hydrolates or hydrolats, by whatever terms the waters be called,  they mean the same.  These condensate waters contain everything that was in the plant and are often more aromatic than even the essential oils. When essential oils are produced using steam distillation, not all the healing and aromatic principles of the plant are captured. But the waters contain the condensate of whatever the plant had when it was alive and growing.

It is wrong to call hydrosols as floral waters as such waters are not just extracted from the flowers. They are extracted from almost everything – herbs, needles, roots, woods, plants, barks, seeds etc. Hydrosols retain the healing properties of plants or herbs in their most pristine form. Even essential oils may contain a residue of solvents in them, with hydrosols you need not have any such worry. They are always pure and 100% natural.

Healing Hydrosols: Hydrosols were not used in the Middle Ages owing to problems with logistics of transportation. Since their healing properties were too less known, people preferred using the smart and neatly-packed essential oils (which work by drops) to the heavy waters of hydrosols. But the 20th century saw hydrosols in a new light and started using it in aromatherapy and general, day-to-day use. Hydrosols are affected by weather changes, climate and soil conditions as a plant’s internal chemistry changes with respect to everything in its environment. So, if you find difference between hydrosols of a same plant, don’t blame it on the manufacturer, but the country and region in which the plants were grown.

Hydrosols are versatile healing waters. They can be used in a multitude of ways – from personal care and general hygiene to skin and hair care. Below are a few uses of hydrosols:

1. Skin care:
Use hydrosols of rose, orange blossom (neroli) and lavender to hydrate skin and cool dry or sensitive skin conditions. Sun-burns can be soothed and cured by these hydrosols.

2. Dark circles: Nothing works miraculously on dark circles like chamomile hydrosols. Just place two cotton wool pads soaked in chamomile waters on your eyes regularly around for 10 minutes and see your dark circles disappear.

3. Body coolant: Peppermint is the ultimate body coolant on sultry summers. They do not just hydrate you, but also offer a calm effect.

4. Washing/Laundry: Use a few drops of rose or neroli waters in the final rinse water of your washing cycle to get a hygienic and aromatic wash. You can even use them as a fragrant to perfume your linen while ironing.

5. Babies: Hydrosols of lavender or chamomile can be added to baby’s bathwater, used in treatment of eczema, diaper rashes and to calm restlessness.

Apart from these, you can use hydrosols in the following situations also:

6. Use hydrosols as a facial mist or toner to cleanse the dirt in your face.

7. Add hydrosols in your bathwater for a natural, aromatic and homeopathic bath experience.

8. Use hydrosols in hair care to treat damaged hair or  as a wonderful conditioner that makes hair grow healthy and strong.

9. You can use hydrosols to treat wounds, open cuts, bruises and many types of injuries. They are harmless and do not cause any serious irritations or side effects.



Latin Name: quercus alba, quercus spp.
Alternative Name: tanner’s bark, white oak, common oak
Forms Available: Inner bark, leaf

Oak – quercus alba or spp. – Also known as Tanner’s Bark, White Oak, and Common Oak. A Druid Holy tree, the oak was the King of trees in a grove. Oak bark and galls are astringent and antiseptic. Oak bark provides tannin and as leather tanners seemed immune to tuberculosis, the bark was used for treatment of the disease.
The white oak, Q. alba, is the best for internal use. Infuse the inner bark or young leaf, before Midsummer, for douches and enemas. Internal rectal problems, hemorrhoids, leukorrhea, menstrual irregularities, and bloody urine are also benefitted. Take internally as a tea. The tea brings down fevers, treats diarrhea, and makes a wash for sores. Up to three cups a day may be safely taken. As a gargle, it treats mouth sores and sore throats. Being an astringent, it stops internal bleeding. Black oak -Q. tinctoria- and red oak -Q. rubra- can be used externally. English oak -Q. robur- can be used both externally and internally.
Oak leaves are prepared in infusion for douches to treat vaginal infections; gather them before Midsummer. To prepare, steep one tablespoon per quart of water for thirty minutes. A tea of the buds is a valuable tonic for the liver; steep two teaspoons per cup of water for twenty minutes. Simmer the bark in salves to make a remedy for hemorrhoids.

Aromatherapy & Health Uses: The tea brings down fevers, treats diarrhea, and makes a wash for sores. Up to three cups a day may be safely taken. As a gargle, it treats mouth sores and sore throats.

Other Uses: Symbolizes abundance, fertility, longevity, protection, and the ability to withstand the lightening blasts of spiritual awareness while remaning firmly rooted in the material. All oak tree parts are powerful protective charms, which bring healing.

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Latin Name: pseudevernia prunastri

Forms Available: essential oil, absolute

Oakmoss – pseudevernia prunastri – Oak Moss is a whitish blue to green, shrubby lichen. A lichen is an alga,which photosynthesizes, and a fungus operating together in a symbiotic relationship. The Arabs use ground Oak Moss to leaven bread. It is collected as a violet-scented fixative and an oleo-resin, extracted for perfumes and soap. Native Americans used it when binding wounds; it is a stomach tonic and an expectorant, and soothes coughs. Oak Moss yields a purple wool dye, but air pollution has made it scarce.

Aromatherapy & Health Uses: Native Americans used it when binding wounds; it is a stomach tonic and an expectorant, and soothes coughs.

Other Uses: Use to attract money.

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Healing aromas and olfactory nerves: Aromatherapy as alternative medicine

Years ago, alternative medicine meant something that was below-the-average, that was not-that-effective and that which was crippled all over. It was something that was frowned upon by traditional practitioners and their loyal followers. Only a few innovators were interested and only a very few knew the benefits of alternative medicinal systems. But things have changed now. Alternative medicine is no more looked down upon. Alternative medicinal systems have evolved as full-fledged systems with capabilities to operate on their own. Aromatherapy is an alternative system of health care which uses essential oils in curing ailments, skin disorders and other ill-health conditions.

What is aromatherapy, what are essential oils: Aromatherapy is all about essential oils or plant oils extracted from various plants or parts of a plant – from bark, stem, wood, resin, spices, herbs, seeds, kernels, flowers etc. The life-blood of plants, essential oils are the immune-shields which protect plant life from all types of infections. When extracted and used, they do the offer the same protection in human beings. Essential oils have a strong aroma and are often inhaled through the nose in aromatherapy. Sometimes, they are mixed with carrier or base oils and used for massaging or other topical applications.

Do essential oils work? Yes, they do. They have been in practice for 4000 years though only in the 20th century, the term aromatherapy came into being. Essential oils work because they contact the brain directly. The aromas inhaled by the nose reach the limbic system of the brain through the olfactory nerves. Since the limbic system is directly connected to parts of the brain which control heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, memory, stress levels and blood circulation, the aroma of essential oils affect all these parts to a great extent. Scientists have discovered that essential oils are the easiest and quickest ways to galvanize physical and psychological changes in the body. For instance, oils of lavender, rose, orange and jasmine have a tranquillizing effect (as they regulate the brain waves to form a rhythm), while that of basil, peppermint and cardamom yield a heightened energy response.

Aromatherapy origin and existence:
Essential oils existed right from the ancient times. It is considered as the first of medicines, and was prevalent even before the use of herbs. The French chemist Rene Gattefosse was the first one to coin the term ‘Aromatherapy’ in the 20th century. The medicinal practice was widely used in ancient civilizations like Egypt, Greece, Rome, India, Persia and China.

Types of aromatherapy: There are no distinct types, but commercialization and modernization has brought in two different kinds of aromatherapy – essential oils for therapeutic purposes and essential oils for fragrance, pleasure, recreation or hygiene. Essential oils can be fragrances or perfumes and still lack in therapeutic value. For an essential oil to be therapeutic, it has to be within the therapeutic grade of aromatherapy. Also, an essential oil has to be extracted, prepared and stored well to be therapeutic.

Uses of aromatherapy: Aromatherapy has emerged from a fledgling science to a fully-developed system of alternative medicine. Essential oils are used in pain relief, as stress de-busters, in treating skin infections, in hair care, in several ailments and inflammatory conditions, as antivirals and in reducing symptoms of chronic diseases. Since the work of any aromatherapeutic product depends on the molecular structures of the oil used and its absorption into the body cells, aromatherapy works only if you use the right oils in the right measures. The whole science of aromatherapy is natural and herbal, hence, side effects are out of question.

What can ruin aromatherapy? Aromatherapy is a complementary form of medicinal system that treats symptoms of diseases. It cannot cure major illnesses like cancer or AIDS. Commercialization of all fragrant products as aromatherapeutic is abuse of the very term of aromatherapy. Any practitioner or user of aromatherapy should understand the limitations of the system of medicine and act accordingly, instead of being carried away by false promises of companies.

Toxic essential oils: 11 hazardous oils you need to avoid

Essential oils are definitely wonder oils that can treat many ailing conditions. They bring about a miraculous cure when applied on body parts or inhaled through the nose. They can treat and alleviate viral infections, skin conditions, pain and aches, symptoms of various chronic illnesses etc. They also calm an individual’s mental state, promote cell regeneration and relieve stress, anxiety and pain – physical, psychological and emotional.

Toxic essential oils: Though essential oils can do all these, one has to remember that they are potent compounds that are highly concentrated. Some essential oils can be toxic to the human body. When used in massage therapy or ingested internally, they can produce hazardous and allergic reactions, resulting in fatal conditions. There are a list of pure essential oils which are not used in aromatherapy owing to their ill nature. Some oils carry a high risk of oral or dermal toxicity and hence no essential oil should be taken internally without guidance from a qualified and licensed medical practitioner. Some oils need to be diluted for practical use or to avoid side effects like skin irritation.

Below is a list of essential oils that are harmful and should be avoided in aromatherapy:

1. Sweet Birch oil: This oil has the same ingredient found in drugs like aspirin (methyl salicylate) and hence should be avoided. If you are already on aspirin, then, using this oil could mean an overdose.

2. Bitter Almond oil: Cyanide or Prussic acid is the main constituent of bitter almond oil. Just like the cyanide, taking small amounts of the oil can have lethal effects.

3. Calamus oil: Though the oil is used topically for a lot of ailments like headaches, vertigo and nerve problems, oral intake of it can be dangerous. It has asorone which has carcinogenic properties and can result in convulsions, kidney or liver damages.

4. Camphor oil: Camphor oil is a single compound monoterpene which is toxic to the nervous system, causing mental confusion, nausea and vomiting if taken internally. However, the oil is used in treatment of nasal congestion, chest problems and in pain relief.

5. Tansy oil: Tansy oil can be fatal to anyone. It contains thujone, a highly poisonous substance which causes convulsions, uterine bleeding, vomiting, respiratory problems and cardiac arrest.

6. Mustard oil: Mustard oil contain allyl isothiocyanate which is a toxic skin and mucus membrane irritant.

7. Pennyroyal oil:
The herb is used in treatment of irregular menstrual cycles, PMS etc. But the oil, which is toxic, is an abortifacient that can result in lung and liver damages.

8. Wormseed oil: Earlier wormseed oil was used to kill round and hookworms in children and adults. But later it was found out that the oil caused liver and kidney damages, suppression of heart beat, neurotoxicity and general toxicity in the body.

9. Wintergreen oil: Like the Sweet Birch oil, this too contains methyl salicylate which is similar to aspirin. Though it is used in relief of pain and aches due to arthritis or rheumatism, it is highly toxic and can be a poisonous skin irritant.

10. Savin oil:
Savin or Juniperus sabina is toxic due to the presence of sabinene, sabinol and sabinyl acetate, which are skin irritants and abortifacients.

11. Wormwood: With thujone, neurotoxin and convulsant as active ingredient, wormwood is abhorred by aromatherapists due its abortifacient properties and absinthe constituents.

It’s no child’s play: Harmless essential oils for babies and children

Essential oils can be used in babies and children, but caution should be a constant in such usage. Though essential oils are regarded high for their therapeutic value, they can play havoc with a child’s life or health if not used properly.

Essential oils for babies: According to the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA), it is best to avoid use of essential oils in children under the age of two due to a number of reasons. Some of these reasons are:

1. Liver and kidney damages: A baby’s liver and kidneys are still under the stage of development when the baby is below 2 years old. Since essential oils stay in the body for a longer period of time, babies may have problem excreting them in case of a heavy dose.

2. Silicone and mineral based: Essential oils may bind to the components in silicone and mineral based baby products, making it difficult for absorption of oils by the body. Also, the body loses its ability to eliminate such oils.

3. Skin barriers: A baby’s skin pores are smaller than in adults. When too many lotions, soaps and oils are used on it, the skin pores may get clogged, making it difficult for the skin to eliminate body wastes. This is why it is advised that babies, toddlers and children should be given only oils with lesser dilutions.

However, the TGA does not rule out the use of essential oils in babies under medical supervision. Before you plan to subject your baby to aromatherapy, consult a licensed aromatherapist on the options available. Essential oils can remove diaper rashes, cure skin disorders, colic problems, common cold and a wide assortment of ailments or conditions in a baby or child.

Safest essential oils: Due to the above reasons, it is better if you operate on well-known safe oils. To start with, you need to experiment with one or two oils on your baby. Also, you need to ensure that you know the proper application techniques and dilution methods. Essential oils should not be applied without diluting them with carrier oils, however over-proportion of carrier oils can result clogging of pores. So, use the right kind of oils in the right measures. Below are a few safe essential oils you can use for your baby or child:

1. Jojoba oil: Both a carrier oil and an essential oil, jojoba is safe for skin and is highly recommended for babies. It is effective in treating skin disorders in children, including diaper rashes, skin sensitivities etc.

2. Lavender oil: Most of the baby products have lavender oil in their ingredients. A mild and delicate oil, it has a pleasant and soothing aroma and produces a relaxing effect on the baby’s nerves. It can be used to cure sleeping disorders in babies.

3. Almond oil: Ideal oil for baby skin care. It can protect the baby from possible skin conditions by regular usage, by adding to your baby’s bath or regularly massaging after bath. The nut ingredients in the oil can be allergic to certain babies, so ensure that your baby is not allergic to almond oil by doing a skin patch test before application.

4. Chamomile oil: This oil provides skin care and pain relief in infants. Several baby products have chamomile as their main ingredient owing to its natural healing properties. It prevents dampness in baby’s bottom and cures diaper rashes. It also heals sores, inflammations and other serious skin conditions.

5. Rosemary oil: A popular herb, it can be used in skin care in babies and children. The oil also stimulates the immune system and enhances digestive and circulatory functions of the body.



Latin Name: hibiscus esculentus
Alternative Name: gombo, bendee
Forms Available: leaf, fruit

Okra – hibiscus esculentus – This plant has demulcent and emollient properties. Also said to stimulate blood flow and aid the control of blood pressure. The fruit is rich in vitamins A,B,C and G.

Aromatherapy & Health Uses: A soothing plant, dumulcent and emollient properties.

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Pharaohs, cosmetics and essential oils: Egyptian influence on aromatherapy

Aromatherapy has a history that is as old as the history of medicinal practices itself. Though no one is certain as to when aromatherapy was first used, the fact that it has a revered history dating back to 4500 years is accepted by all. Experts believe that aromatics were the first medicines and they pre-dated even the use of herbs for medicinal treatment.

If one has to go to a recorded time when one can be sure of the prevalence of aromatics, one has to time travel to ancient Egypt. The ancient Egyptians were the first (in recorded history) to have widely used aromatherapy in their daily life, religious rituals and medical substances. The Egyptians were the first to discover that fragrances are effective and can be used for religious practices, illness treatments and other physical and spiritual needs. They used essential oils, herbs, perfumed oils and spices extensively in skin care, body massage and to cleanse physical impurities.

Egyptian cosmetics: Perfumes, sunscreen lotions, exfoliants, depilatories, lip-glosses, anti-wrinkle creams etc. may sound like a cross-section of the current cosmetic and skin care industry. But the ancient Egyptians too knew about all these. They used a lot of skin care products and fragrances to keep their bodies clean, fragrant and to ward off diseases. In no culture or civilization has cosmetics played a vital part in social living like in Egypt. And the source of all this cosmetic industry were the essential oils. Egyptians transported valuable, aromatic and healing herbs and spices from other lands (like Persia) to be steam-distilled into essential oils.

Their love for perfumery made them keep perfumed cones under their headdresses during festivals. The cones, consisting of aromatic oils, would melt into the head and release sweet fragrances. After bathing, they would anoint their bodies with oils to moisturize their skin cells and replenish dead cells. They had formulated eyeshadows, eyeliners and other cosmetics from essential oils way before the western world could pack them and give them names and labels.

Pharaohs and mummification:
In their quest for immortality, they buried their Pharaohs with lots of oils inside the pyramids. When the tomb of King Tutankhamen was explored in 1922, it contained about 50 alabaster jars designed to hold about 350 liters of essential oils. Thieves had looted all the oils instead of gold and stones, which show the value the ancient Egyptians gave to essential oils. Oils made from frankincense, myrrh, galbanum, cinnamon, cedarwood, juniper berry and spikenard were buried with the Egyptian dead. This was in practice from 2650 to 2575 B.C., illustrating the advancement of Egyptians in aromatherapy as a science.

Egyptian essential oils:
Myrrh was the most popular herb used for producing essential oils. Apart from Myrrh, other oils made from frankincense, spikenard, cedarwood, cinnamon etc. were also in popular use. Masters of cosmetics and perfumery, the Egyptians slowly brought aromatherapy into medicinal practice also. Ebers Papyrus (discovered in 1817 by Ebers), dating back to 1500 B.C., is a medical scroll that lists over 800 different medical remedies and prescriptions of which most of them used essential oils. Many mixtures used myrrh and honey with myrrh serving to alleviate skin and throat infections and for regeneration of throat tissue. The temple of Edfu has hieroglyphics depicting the use of Kyphi, an aromatic substance to induce sleep, alleviate anxieties and as an antidote of toxins.

In brief, Egyptians were first to master the art of aromatherapy. Many of the systems and methods followed by them have influenced aromatherapists down the ages.