Geranium Essential Oil

Geranium Essential Oil – Possible Skin Issues:

Greener Life Diamond – Bio-Healthy Score => 3 – Possible Skin Issues.

Maximum dermal use level: 17.5%

The International Fragrance Association (IFRA) recommends that geraniol be limited to 5.3%, which translates into 17.5% Geranium oil (about 105 drops per ounce of any other carrier oils) for leave-on products like ointments, creams, and lotions. There is no restriction for body washes, shampoos, soaps, and other wash-off products because the oil does not remain on the skin.

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Geranium is a hairy perennial shrub, often used in hedgerows, and will stand up to about one meter high (3 feet) with pointed leaves, serrated at the edges and with flowers that range from red to a pinkish white. Geranium plants originated in South Africa, Madagascar, Egypt and Morocco and were introduced to European countries in the 17th century.  The petals are used in gourmet jellies and confections, and the oil is widely used in scented topical applications.

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Geranium and its essential oil have been used in numerous alternative medicinal practices for healing wounds and fractures.  It is said that the ancient Greeks used Geranium for treating skin problems.  Egyptians used Geranium oil for enhancing the beauty and radiance of their skin.

This plant was grown around homes in the ancient times to keep away from evil spirits.  Traditionally,  Africans used Geranium oil in the treatment of cholera and tumors. Native American tribes in North America used Geranium tea prepared from the root powder to enhance the body’s immune power, and to treat ulcers and dysentery.

There are 250 natural species and thousands of cultivars and hybrid varieties of the Pelargonium plant family, in the genus Geraniaceae and the most popular ones are Egyptian Geranium, Reunion or the Geranium Bourbon and the Moroccan varieties. Most of the varieties have a similar structure of chemical constituents with Citronellol and Geraniol being the prevalent components.

Geranium Bourbon essential oil is certified with GRAS (Generally Regarded As Safe) status by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) as Geranium oil is mild and tested safe on individuals on a normal prescribed usage level.

Using Geranium oil in a concentrated form or beyond the safe level of use might cause adverse skin reactions like mild irritation, sensitization (lower risk), rashes, allergy, irritation of the eyes and contact dermatitis. Geranium oil is non-phototoxic in nature.

The primary chemical constituents that are held responsible for the adverse skin reactions of Geranium oil are citronellal and geraniol, where citronellal is reported to exhibit mild irritant effect along with sporadic sensitization and skin irritation and Geraniol is claimed for skin sensitization.

The safe dermal usage level for this oil is 17.5% by IFRA (International Fragrance Association) and this safety report is based on the 30% Geraniol content, which has a maximum dermal limit of 5.3%.

Research reports reveal the skin irritating effect of Reunion Geranium oil used in an undiluted manner; this oil was slightly irritating when tested on mouse skin; when tested with 5% Bourbon Geranium oil on 100 repeated dermatitis patients, the result was placid with two irritant reactions. It has also been proved that cosmetics with Geranium oil formula have caused dermatitis in hypersensitive individuals.

Always blend Geranium essential oil in carrier oils like Olive oil, Jojoba oil or Coconut oil before using it topically. This is because organic and pure essential oils are extremely concentrated liquid substances that may impair the skin surface, when used in an undiluted form.

Essential oils are recommended only for external use and never ingest essential oils as it can cause serious health hazards.  When administering Geranium oil orally in studies,  acute dermal LD50 has been witnessed  in rabbits. This may also cause possible drug interactions with antidiabetic medicines and the enzyme, CYP2B6 inhibiting effect of geraniol causes drug interaction metabolized by CYP2B6.

A recent study has witnessed this by testing alloxan-induced diabetic male rats with Geranium oil for about a month. The level of blood glucose was decreased by glibenclamide and the concentration of hepatic glycogen was significantly augmented.

As there are no evidenced reports on the safety of Geranium oil during pregnancy and lactating, it is safe to avoid this oil for it may have an impact on the hormonal fluctuations during these special moments. It is better to keep away Geranium oil from babies, either as a massage aid or for inhalation as it can harm their sensitive and tender skin.

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Visit AyurvedicOils.com for more information on the traditional ayurvedic and aromatherapeutic uses of Geranium Oil. Learn about the natural chemical components that give Geranium Oil its fragrance and therapeutic characteristics.

Reference Links Substantiating the Possible Skin Issues of Geranium Oil:

  1. Geranium by Essential Oil Safety: A Guide for Health Care Professionals By Robert Tisserand, Rodney Young
  2. Geranium Toxicology by Leung’s Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients, used in Food, Drugs and Cosmetics by Ikhlas A. Khan and Ehab A. Abourashed
  3. Side effects of Geranium oil by Mercola.com
  4. Side effects and Safety of Geranium oil by WebMD

Thought for the day:

The course of Nature is the art of God. -Edward Young

Suggested Reading:

  1. How to Use Geranium Essential Oil (Aromatherapy) by Miriam Kinai
  2. Growing Pelargoniums and Geraniums: A Complete Guide by Beryl Stockton, Geoff Stockton, John Mason
  3. Geraniums: The Complete Encyclopedia by Faye Brawner
  4. Geranium and Pelargonium: History of Nomenclature, Usage and Cultivation (Medicinal and Aromatic Plants – Industrial Profiles) from CRC Press
  5. Ayurveda & Aromatherapy: The Earth Essential Guide to Ancient Wisdom and Modern Healing by Dr. Light Miller, Dr. Bryan Miller

Reference Links:

  1. Pelargonium graveolens by Wikipedia
  2. The Emotional, physical and health benefits of Geranium Essential Oil by HubPages
  3. Antibacterial activity and composition of essential oils from Pelargonium graveolens L’Her and Vitex agnus-castus L. by Ghannadi A, Bagherinejad M, Abedi D, Jalali M, Absalan B, Sadeghi N, published in PubMed
  4. Geranium by Daniele Ryman for the Aromatherapy Bible
  5. What are the benefits of Geranium oil in Aromatherapy by Yogawiz.com
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Lemon Balm


Lemon Balm


Latin Name: melissa officinalis
Alternative Name: melissa, balm, bee balm, sweet balm, sweet melissa
Forms Available: leaf, flower

Lemon Balm – melissa officionalis – This bushy herb has square stems, lemon-scented foliage, and late-summer flowers that mature from white or yellow to pale blue. Fresh leaves add a delicate flavor to many dishes, oils, vinegars, and liqueurs, provide a relaxing bath, soothe insect bites, and make a sedative and tonic tea.

Aromatherapy & Health Uses: Induces a relaxed start and lifts the spirit. Calms stress.

Other Uses: Soak in wine for 3 hours, remove and serve wine to friends and loved ones. Used in spells to ensure success.


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Wormwood Essential Oil

Wormwood Essential Oil – Possible Skin Issues:

Greener Life Diamond – Bio-Healthy Score => 3 – Possible Skin Issues:

Maximum dermal use level: 0.4%

The International Fragrance Association (IFRA) recommends that Wormwood oil be limited to 0.4% (about 2.4 drops per ounce of any other carrier oils) for leave-on products like ointments, creams, and lotions. There is no restriction for body washes, shampoos, soaps, and other wash-off products because the oil does not remain on the skin.

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Wormwood oil is considered as a narcotic oil when used in higher doses. The adverse effects of Wormwood oil is attributed to the presence of chemical constituent thujone, which contributes to about 50 percent of the oil. Thujone containing oils are restricted prevalently, mainly due to the concern of its psychotropic, nephrotoxic and neurotoxic effects. It may cause skin irritation, redness, eruptions in sensitive skin and dermatitis.

Studies witness the excitation of the autonomic nervous system due to convulsions and binding of the GABA receptors caused due to α and β-thujone. It is also a known fact that high amount of thujone and its metabolites can induce convulsions, unconsciousness, seizures, gastrointestinal cramps, insomnia, tremors, dizziness, hallucinations, vomiting, headaches, retention of urine, renal lesions, congestive heart failure and rhabdomyolysis (collapse of muscular fibers).

Wormwood should never be used internally as there are numerous studies witnessing the severe toxic effects of ingesting this oil and few cases include absinthism and the acute renal failure due to rhabdomyolysis in a person who drank about 10 ml of Wormwood oil; In an another case, the intake of 60 ml of Wormwood oil ended up in seizure, altered mental faculty, attention disability, rhabdomyolysis and hyperthermia.

Blend Wormwood oil in mild carrier oils like Coconut oil or Avocado oil before topical use as pure and organic essential oils are highly concentrated substances and can harm the skin surface if used in a concentrated form. The safe level of dermal use for this oil is 0.4% by IFRA (International Fragrance Association).

Dr. William Smith in a Medico-Chirurgical transaction study talks about the case of poisoning by Wormwood oil. It is stated that this oil has narcotic influence that may have negative impact on the nervous system, causing headache, convulsions, giddiness, vomiting, tremors and paralysis.

The PanAfrican Medical Journal study talks about the burning effects of Wormwood herb, where a 50 year old woman reported a severe pain in the facial skin with a dry and delicate erythema in the cheeks and forehead classified as an initial degree burn.

It was concluded that the presence of toxic agents, like thujone and malic acid were responsible for the adverse effects like redness, skin sensitivity and chemical burns. It was termed as a phytodermatose, which are lesions on the skin due to the frequent contact with certain herbs. Research reports also state that thujone is porphyrogenic in nature and can be hazardous for patients with defective hepatic heme synthesis.

With thujone being the toxic component, using Wormwood oil can act as a threat to pregnancy as it may affect the health of the uterus with its emmenagogue and abortifacient effects and is good to continue avoiding this oil during lactation as well.

It is advisable to restrict the use of this oil on children as they have a sensitive skin. Wormwood oil can also cause allergic reactions on the skin for those who are susceptible to plants of the Compositae/Asteraceae family like the Marigold, Ragweed, Chrysanthemum etc.,

Reference Links Substantiating the Possible Skin Issues of Wormwood Oil:

  1. Artemisia absinthium: burning plant! By Najia Ilham El Makrini, Badredine Hassam, Department of Dermatology, Ibn Sina Hospital, Rabat, Morocco published in the PanAfrican Medical Journal
  2. Case of Poisoning by Oil of Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) by Dr. William Smith, Surgeon Chesterfield and North Derbyshire Hospital, published in Medico-Chirurgical Transactions, Royal Society of Medicine
  3. Wormwood by Essential Oil Safety: A Guide for Health Care Professionals By Robert Tisserand, Rodney Young
  4. Wormwood Toxicology by Leung’s Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients, used in Food, Drugs and Cosmetics by Ikhlas A. Khan and Ehab A. Abourashed
  5. Adverse events and side effects of Artemisia absinthium by American Herbal Products Association’s Botanical Safety Handbook, Second Edition by Zoe Gardner, Michael McGuffin
  6. Toxicology and adverse reactions of Wormwood by Drugs.com
  7. Side effects of Wormwood by University of Michigan Health System

Thought for the day:

Life is not living, but living in health.

– Martial, Roman poet

Suggested Reading:

  1. Artemisia (Medicinal and Aromatic Plants – Industrial Profiles) by Colin W. Wright
  2. Complete Aromatherapy Handbook: Essential Oils for Radiant Health by Susanne Fischer-Rizzi
  3. Aromatherapy for the Soul: Healing the Spirit with Fragrance and Essential Oils by Valerie Ann Worwood
  4. Essential Oil Safety, Second Edition by Robert Tisserand and Rodney Young

Reference Links:

  1. Wormwood by Ingrid Naiman
  2. Health Benefits of Wormwood Essential Oil by Organic Facts
  3. Wormwood by Cancer.Org
  4. Wormwood Ancient Chinese Folk Remedy May Hold Key to Non-Toxic Cancer Treatment by Dr. Clark Information Center
Your resource for quality Essential Oils. Every batch is GC tested to ensure purity and authenticity.

Tagetes Essential Oil

Tagetes Essential Oil – Possible Skin Issues:

Greener Life Diamond – Bio-Healthy Score => 3 – Possible Skin Issues

Maximum dermal use level: 0.01% to avoid phototoxicity

The International Fragrance Association (IFRA) recommends that Tagetes oil be limited to 0.01% (about 1 drop per 16 ounces of any other carrier oils) for leave-on products like ointments, creams, and lotions used on skin exposed to sunlight. There is no restriction for body washes, shampoos, soaps, and other wash-off products because the oil does not remain on the skin.

Learn more about the Greener Life Diamond and the benefits of the Greener Life Club

Tagetes oil is said to cause phototoxic effects mainly due to the presence of limonene, just like the citrus oils. It expresses skin sensitization if the oil is oxidized and it is best to avoid oxidized and old oils. Essential oils that are phototoxic in nature can cause skin sensitization, irritation of the skin, contact dermatitis, hyperpigmentation and certain other allergic reactions.

Tagetes oil should not be used on skin that will be exposed to direct sunlight within 12 hours of application.

The maximum level for dermal use is 0.01% according to the International Fragrance Association (IFRA), on the parts of the skin that are exposed to sunlight and is not applicable for rinse-off products. IFRA recommends this safety level based on the unpublished study of RIFM (The Research Institute for Fragrance Materials).

SCCP (The Scientific Committee on Consumer Products) suggests that, since “no safe limit of use in cosmetic products has been demonstrated”, Tagetes oil and its absolutes should be avoided for use in the manufacturing of Cosmetic products.

Tagetes oil is said to cause allergic reactions like skin rashes for people who are generally allergic to daisy flowers and any other flowers from the plant family, Asteraceae, including Chrysanthemum, Marigold and Ragweed.

Never use essential oils internally and for topical application, ensure that you blend Tagetes oil with gentle carrier oils, as essential oils are highly concentrated substances and may harm the skin, when used directly.

Though Tagetes oil has been claimed as an oil with the lowest toxicity, studies have proved the mild irritating effects of Tagetes oil on rabbits, its allergic contact dermatitis, primary eye irritation and acute inhalation toxicity.

Sufficient information is not available on the safety of Tagetes oil and higher concentration might be tough to resist. So it is bestto avoid Tagetes oil on children, pregnant women and nursing moms.

Reference Links Substantiating the Possible Skin Issues of Tagetes Oil:

  1. Tagetes oil by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pesticide Programs, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division
  2. Tagetes by Leung’s Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients, used in Food, Drugs and Cosmetics by Ikhlas A. Khan and Ehab A. Abourashed.
  3. Tagetes – Side Effects by WebMD
  4. Essential Oil Safety: A Guide for Health Care Professionals By Robert Tisserand, Rodney Young
  5. A brief study on Marigold (Tagetes Species): A Review by Dixit Priyanka, Tripathi Shalini, Verma Kumar Navneet, Department of Pharmacy, RITM, India and published in the International Research Journal of Pharmacy

Thought for the day:

Flowers always make people better, happier, and more helpful; they are sunshine, food and medicine for the soul.Luther Burbank

Suggested reading:

  1. Ayurveda & Aromatherapy: The Earth Essential Guide to Ancient Wisdom and Modern Healing by Dr. Light Miller, Dr. Bryan Miller
  2. 375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols by Jeanne Rose
  3. Ayurvedic Remedies for the Whole Family by Dr. Light Miller
  4. Scientific Basis for Ayurvedic Therapies from CRC Press
  5. Essential Oil Safety, Second Edition by Robert Tisserand and Rodney Young

Reference Links:

  1. Evaluating biological activities of the seed extracts from Tagetes minuta found in Northern Pakistan published in the Journal of Medicinal Plants Research
  2. Ann Arbor Summer – More on Marigolds
  3. Herbal Remedies for Asthma: An Overview published in the Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research
  4. Antibacterial activity of Tagetes minuta essential oil with different chemical composition published in Flavour and Fragrance Journal
Your resource for quality Essential Oils. Every batch is GC tested to ensure purity and authenticity.

Pine Scotch Essential Oil

Pine Scotch Essential Oil – Possible Skin Issues:

Greener Life Diamond – Bio-Healthy Score => 3 – Possible Skin Issues:

Maximum dermal use level: 2%

While there are no regulatory restrictions on the use of Scots Pine oil, the oxidation products of alpha-pinene and delta-3-carene can cause skin sensitization. Pine oil should be stored in dark bottles and cool locations to avoid oxidation. The use of antioxidants in formulations containing pine oil is also advised.

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Originally from around the Mediterranean basin, this evergreen tree can grow up to 25 – 30 feet and the bark is a reddish-brown that is deeply fissured with needle-like leaves that grow in pairs, and pear-shaped cones. Historically it has been used in steam baths and massage oils.

Buy Pine Scotch Essential Oil – 4oz – CLICK HERE
Buy Pine Scotch Essential Oil – 1KG – CLICK HERE

The essential oil of Pine Scotch is said to cause mild skin irritation, contact dermatitis, sensitization, allergic reactions and irritation of the mucous membrane. It has been certified as GRAS (Generally Regarded As Safe) by the FEMA (Flavouring Extract Manufacturers’ Association). The chief chemical components responsible for the adverse skin impacts of Pine Scotch oil are α-pinene, delta-3-carene and limonene, mainly due to their autoxidation effects.

Certain studies report the effects of Pine scotch oil on contact dermatitis and sensitivity. When used in large doses α-pinene has the potential to cause irritation of the mucous membrane, kidney damage, CNS (Central Nervous System) depression, growth of benign tumors, skin sensitization, allergies and irritation.

According to the Food and Cosmetic Toxicology edition (1976) by L.J. Opdyke, Pine Scotch oil sensitizing and irritating to certain individuals and is nonphototoxic in nature. When tested on repeated dermatitis patients at 2%, this oil provoked allergic reactions in about 12 members of the 1606 tested.

As Pine scotch oil has the tendency to irritate the lining of the mucous membrane during inhalation, it is good to avoid this oil if you have asthma, allergies in the respiratory passages and bronchial disorders.

The International Fragrance Association (IFRA) claims Pine Scotch oil as a sensitizing oil. Pine Scotch oil is recommended only for dermal use and not for ingestion. Besides being proved as an effective cytotoxic agent (fights against cancerous cells), certain studies have witnessed the renal failure, genotoxic and acute toxicity effects of the ingestion of Pine scotch oil.

Never use Pine scotch oil in an undiluted form and make certain that you always blend essential oils with gentle carrier oils like coconut oil and olive oil, as organic essential oils are very concentrated and may cause negative effects on the eyes, skin and the body. Stay safe by using diluted Pine scotch oil and avoid using it on allergies, damaged skin, eyes and inflammatory skin conditions.

It is better to avoid the use of Pine scotch oil if you are pregnant or nursing as there is insufficient information on the safe use of this oil during these sensitive times when the system experience enormous changes in the hormonal functions.

These possible skin issues are applicable only for leave-on products like creams and lotions and not for rinse-off products like soaps, shampoos and other bath preparations.

pine-broucherThe traditional therapeutic values of Pine pinaster oil are anti-inflammatory, expectorant, restorative, stimulant, antiviral, antibacterial, circulatory, decongestant, disinfectant, analgesic and deodorant. The bark of this tree contains Oligomeric Proanthocyanidin Complexes (OPC’s) that make it an effective antioxidant that can fight against free radicals responsible for cancerous diseases.

Reference Links Substantiating the Possible Skin Issues of Pine Scotch Oil:

  1. Pine oil by Essential Oil Safety: A Guide for Health Care Professionals By Robert Tisserand, Rodney Young
  2. Pine side effects and safety by WebMD
  3. Pine Needle Oil Toxicology by Leung’s Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients, used in Food, Drugs and Cosmetics by Ikhlas A. Khan and Ehab A. Abourashed
  4. Medicinal Plants in Australia Volume 2: Gums, Resins, Tannin and Essential Oils by Cheryll Williams
  5. Selectivity of Pinus sylvestris extract and essential oil to estrogen-insensitive breast cancer cells Pinus sylvestris against cancer cells by Nguyen Thi Hoai, Ho Viet Duc, Do Thi Thao, Anne Orav and Ain Raal, published in the Pharmacognosy Magazine
  6. Scotch Pine Needle Oil by The Good Scents Company
  7. Pinus Species by Adverse Effects of Herbal Drugs 2

Thought for the day:

Trees are the earth’s endless effort to speak to the listening heaven.
-Rabindranath Tagore

Suggested Reading:

  1. The Practice of Aromatherapy by Dr. Jean Valnet
  2. Ayurveda & Aromatherapy: The Earth Essential Guide to Ancient Wisdom and Modern Healing by Dr. Light Miller, Dr. Bryan Miller
  3. The Aromatherapy Companion: Medicinal Uses/Ayurvedic Healing/Body-Care Blends/Perfumes & Scents/Emotional Health & Well-Being (Herbal Body) by Victoria H. Edwards

Reference Links:

  1. Maritime Pine by Victoria Department of Environment and Primary Industries
  2. Chemical and Antimicrobial Properties of Essential Oils of Five Moroccan Pinaceae published in The Journal of Essential Oil Research
  3. Pharmaceutical and nutraceutical effects of Pinus pinaster bark extract published in PubMed
Your resource for quality Essential Oils. Every batch is GC tested to ensure purity and authenticity.

Mustard Essential Oil

Mustard Essential Oil Possible Skin Issues:

mustard-new

Greener Life Diamond – Bio-Healthy Score => 3 Possible Skin Issues:

Maximum dermal use level: 0%

The International Fragrance Association (IFRA) prohibits allyl isothiocyanate in fragrances. Since allyl isothicyanate is the principle component of mustard essential oil, it is not suitable for use in soaps and cosmetics.

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Mustard oil is regarded as one of the most unsafe essential oils mainly due to the presence of Allyl isothiocyanate and erucic acid (a toxic monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid). According to the U.S. National Center for Biotechnology Information (PubChem), Allyl isothiocyanate compound is poisonous by skin penetration and ingestion. It is also known to emit toxic fumes when exposed to high temperature.

The European Union has prohibited Mustard oil as a cosmetic ingredient and the International Fragrance Association (IFRA) has forbid the use of this oil in fragrances. Allyl isothiocyanate in Mustard oil is not recommended for therapeutic use, primarily due to its toxicity, irritating nature and rigorous lachrymatory effect (potent to produce tears) that draw a question mark on the safe use of this oil in the healthcare industry.

Generally, essential oils are listed with possible safe levels for therapeutic purposes but there is no viable information on the safe levels for the use of Mustard oil.

The immune system of mammals reacts excessively to allergens thus generating antibodies known as IgE (Immunoglobulin). Allergic reactions are further caused when these antibodies move to cells that discharge chemicals.

The most prominent adverse skin effects of Mustard oil are allergic reactions due to IgE, itchiness, redness, severe skin irritation, followed by blistering and irritation of the mucous membranes as well.

Prolonged use of Mustard oil on skin might interfere the function of the skin, thus augment the loss of water of epidermis and subsequently modifying the epidermal keratinocytes structure.

Few sources also state that inhaling of Mustard oil might end up in irritation of the eyes, nose, mucous membrane, respiratory system along with an obnoxious sensation in the head.

Certain studies state that the topical use of Mustard oil can cause irritant contact dermatitis and other allergic reactions. It is also evidenced that this oil is linked to the development of pityriasis rosea-like skin eruption (cutaneous lesions), which was proved by patch testing.

Tests on Chinese hamster cells proved the genotoxic effects of Allyl isothiocyanate and is also said to cause transitional cell papillomas and hyperplasia, when tested on male rats.

Mustard oil should be strictly avoided by pregnant women as it has the potent to induce uterine contractions and may lead to unusual bleeding and miscarriage and safety measures for using this oil during nursing is also not witnessed.

Mustard oil has the tendency to lower the levels of blood sugar and might interfere with your regular medications for diabetes and low blood sugar may obstruct surgical procedures, thus it is recommended to avoid Mustard oil for about 2 weeks before and after your scheduled surgery.

Reference Links Substantiating the Possible Skin Issues of Mustard Oil:

  1. Essential Oil Safety: A Guide for Health Care Professionals By Robert Tisserand, Rodney Young
  2. Pityriasis rosea-like eruptions due to mustard oil application by Zawar V, Nashik, India, published in the Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology
  3. Dermatoses Due to Indian Cultural Practices by Divya Gupta and Devinder Mohan Thappa, published in the Indian Journal of Dermatology and PubMed
  4. Black Mustard Side Effects and Safety by WebMD
  5. Allyl Isothiocyanate by U.S. National Center for Biotechnology Information (PubChem)
  6. Leung’s Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients, used in Food, Drugs and Cosmetics by Ikhlas A. Khan and Ehab A. Abourashed

Thought for the day:

I believe a leaf of grass is no less than the journey-work of the stars. -Walt Whitman

Suggested Reading:

  1. Mustard Seeds: The Tiny Seed That May Save Your Life! (Plant & Seed Legacy Series) by Mary Jo Montanye
  2. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Essential Oils: The Complete Guide to the Use of Oils in Aromatherapy & Herbalism by Julia Lawless
  3. The Ayurvedic Cookbook by Amadea Morningstar, Urmila Desai
  4. Traditional Systems of Medicine by M. Z. Abdin
  5. Essential Oil Safety, Second Edition by Robert Tisserand and Rodney Young

Reference Links:

  1. The History of Mustard – From Prehistory to Modern Times by The Nibble.Com
  2. Mustard Oil by Wikipedia
  3. Antimicrobial activity of Mustard essential oil against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhi by the Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Korea published in Science Direct.com
  4. What are the benefits of Mustard oil for Sinusitis? By Livestrong.Com
Your resource for quality Essential Oils. Every batch is GC tested to ensure purity and authenticity.

Lime Essential Oil

Lime Essential Oil Possible Skin Issues:

Greener Life Diamond – Bio-Healthy Score => 3 – Possible Skin Issues:

Maximum dermal use level: 0.7% to avoid phototoxicity

The International Fragrance Association (IFRA) recommends that Lime oil be limited to 0.7% (about 4 drops per ounce of any other carrier oils) for leave-on products like ointments, creams, and lotions used on skin exposed to sunlight. There is no restriction for body washes, shampoos, soaps, and other wash-off products because the oil does not remain on the skin.

Learn more about the Greener Life Diamond and the benefits of the Greener Life Club

Lime is a small evergreen tree that produces a small, sour fruit very similar to Lemon. The fruits themselves are green in color with a fleshy interior. Historically, limes were used to prevent sailors from developing scurvy.

Lime is indigenous to Asia and is now cultivated in numerous countries like America, West Indies and Italy. This evergreen tree bears white flowers and glittering green fruits. India is the largest Lime oil producing country in the world and Lime was introduced into Europe initially by the Moors and was then spread slowly to America. Lime essential oil is extracted by cold press method from the peel of the fruit.

The leaves of the Lime tree were used in the prehistoric period for treating poisonous bites and swellings.  Apart from its medicinal uses, Lime has been used in making pickles, sauces, desserts, jams, confections, sorbets, marmalades, beverages, squashes, perfumes, household cleaners, detergents, soaps, cosmetics and other beauty products.

Buy Lime Essential Oil – 4oz – CLICK HERE
Buy Lime Essential Oil – 1KG – CLICK HERE

Lime essential oil has a photosensitizing effect that can cause irritation of the skin, allergic reactions, burning sensation, phytophotodermatitis, hyperpigmentation (change of skin color, visible especially in people with white skin complexion) and certain other effects. The photosensitizing effect can last up to 12 hours after application.

The primary chemical constituent responsible for the photo-carcinogenic, skin sensitizing and other topical effects of the essential oil of Lime is Limonene and certain other furanocoumarins.

A 2014 study published in the Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives reveals about a skin condition called as phytophotodermatitis, induced by Lime, where a 24-year old nurse came up with red demarcated tender patches and crusted vesicles after squeezing fresh limes and going out in sun on a bright day.

Phytophotodermatitis is defined as a nonimmunologic eruption of the skin that occurs after its contact with phototoxic components in certain plant varieties and is then exposed to ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation through visible sunlight.

Few other studies also witness the effects of photosensitization of Lime and Lime-based products containing psoralens, paving the way for burns, blisters, bullae, eruption, erythematous vesicles, rashes, inflammation and hyperpigmentation. It is also been said that in certain severe cases, systemic toxicity come with the rashes, which includes nausea, vomiting and fever.

Lime oil has also been reported to promote tumors, when tested on rats where most of the papillomas were benign and few were malignant.

The safe dilution level of Lime oil is 0.7%, which is 4.2 drops per ounce of any carrier oils as per the International Fragrance Association (IFRA). This safe dilution level applies only for leave-on products like lotions and creams and is not applicable for wash-away products like soaps, shampoos and other bathing products.

IFRA also suggests that Limonene rich essential oils should only be employed, provided the level of peroxides are set aside to the lowest realistic level, for example: by including antioxidants during production.

Lime oil has ‘Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS)’status by FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). As per the European regulatory body, essential oils with furanocoumarins must be used in such a way that the level of bergapten should not go beyond 15ppm (parts per million) in ready to use cosmetic products after which the skin is subjected to exposure of direct sunlight and this does not apply for wash-off products. The level of bergapten should be 1 ppm in bronzing and sun protection products.

For your information, Furocoumarins are also used in healing practices on par with long-wave ultraviolet light therapy for treating vitiligo, psoriasis and mycosis fungoides.

Lime-broucher
Visit AyurvedicOils.com for more information on the traditional ayurvedic and aromatherapeutic uses of Lime Oil. Learn about the natural chemical components that give Lime Oil its fragrance and therapeutic characteristics.

Reference Links Substantiating the Possible Skin Issues of Lime Oil:

  1. Lime-induced Phytophotodermatitis by Dr. Andrew Hankinson, Dr. Benjamin Lloyd and Dr. Richard Alweis, published in the Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives and PubMed
  2. Citrus aurantifolia, American Herbal Products Association’s Botanical Safety Handbook, Second Edition by Zoe Gardner, Michael McGuffin
  3. Essential Oil Safety: A Guide for Health Care Professionals By Robert Tisserand, Rodney Young
  4. Leung’s Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients, used in Food, Drugs and Cosmetics by Ikhlas A. Khan and Ehab A. Abourashed.
  5. Safety Information on Essential Oils by the National Association for Holistic Aromatherapy
  6. Lime oil by Mercola.com
  7. A Topical Skin Eruption by Dr. Christina Greenaway, published in the Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and PubMed

Thought for the day:

It is written on the arched sky; it looks out from every star. It is the poetry of Nature; it is that which uplifts the spirit within us. -John Ruskin

Suggested Reading:

  1. Citrus Oils: Composition, Advanced Analytical Techniques, Contaminants, and Biological Activity (Medicinal and Aromatic Plants – Industrial Profiles) From CRC Press
  2. Ayurveda & Aromatherapy: The Earth Essential Guide to Ancient Wisdom and Modern Healing by Dr. Light Miller, Dr. Bryan Miller
  3. Growing Citrus: The Essential Gardener’s Guide by Martin Page
  4. Save Your Life with the Phenomenal Lemon (& Lime!) (Save Your Life!) by Blythe Ayne
  5. The Lemon & Lime Cookbook by Rick Donker
  6. Essential Oil Safety, Second Edition by Robert Tisserand and Rodney Young

Reference Links:

  1. Lime is Beneficial for Skin and Hair by Namini Wijedasa published in Infolanka.com
  2. Acne by the American Academy of Dermatology
  3. In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils by Seenivasan Prabuseenivasan, Manickkam Jayakumar, and Savarimuthu Ignacimuthupublished in BMC Complement Altern Med, PubMed
  4. Health Benefits of Lime Essential Oil by Organic Facts
Your resource for quality Essential Oils. Every batch is GC tested to ensure purity and authenticity.

Lemon Essential Oil

Lemon Essential Oil – Possible Skin Issues:

lemon-new

Greener Life Diamond – Bio-Healthy Score => 3 Possible Skin Issues:

Maximum dermal use level: 2% to avoid phototoxicity

The International Fragrance Association (IFRA) recommends that Lemon oil be limited to 2% (about 10 drops per ounce of any other carrier oils) for leave-on products like ointments, creams, and lotions used on skin exposed to sunlight. There is no restriction for body washes, shampoos, soaps, and other wash-off products because the oil does not remain on the skin.

Learn more about the Greener Life Diamond and the benefits of the Greener Life Club

Lemon essential oil is among the photosensitizing citrus oils that may cause burning sensation, irritation, hyperpigmentation (discoloration of the skin surface) and other changes due to its effect of stimulating the photosensitivity of the skin, when exposed to visible light from the sun within 12 hours of use. The primary reason is the reaction of the photoactive chemical components that absorbs light and leads to toxicity via molecular alterations in the skin.

The chief chemical component accountable for the skin sensitizing and other dermal effects of Lemon oil is Limonene and few other furanocoumarins.

Buy Lemon Essential Oil – 4oz – CLICK HERE

Buy Lemon Essential Oil – 1KG – CLICK HERE

Certain studies (like the 1994 study on the ‘Occupation Contact Dermatitis from Citrus fruits’ and a 2006 study on ‘Skin Diseases in Workers at a Perfume factory’) on the adverse skin reactions of using the essential oil of Citrus limon reports few cases, including the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis with the use of Lemon rind oil in the workers of the perfume industry. Patch testing also witnessed certain allergic effects on using Lemon rind oil.

Research reveals that Lemon oil has furocoumarin derivatives like oxypeucedanin and bergapten; however the phototoxic effect of oxypeucedanin was just 1 quarter of that of bergapten. It is also stated that these components are the major cause of concern behind the phototoxicity of Lemon essential oil. This study also states that oxypeucedanin educes photo pigmentation on the skin of colored-guinea-pig prior to visible erythema.

It is also stated that the quantity of these 2 phototoxic components in Lemon oils from various countries differed by about a factor greater than 20 (bergapten, 4-87 ppm; oxypeucedanin, 26-728 ppm (parts per million), with a wavering ratio.

The safe dilution use level of Lemon oil, a potential phototoxic essential oil is 2%, which is about 12 drops per ounce of any carrier oils, according to the International Fragrance Association (IFRA). This applies only for products employed for dermal use to prevent phototoxicity and is not valid for wash-off items like shampoos, soaps and other bath products.

Lemon oil has ‘Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS)’authorization by the FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). As per the European decree, essential oils containing furanocoumarins can be used provided the aggregate level of bergapten does not exceed 15 ppm in cosmetic products that are ready-to-use on the skin, which is prone to be exposed to direct sunlight sans wash-away items and 1 ppm in bronzing and sunscreen products.

On a lighter note, Furocoumarins are also used in remedial practices along with long-wave ultraviolet light therapy for treating psoriasis, mycosis fungoides and vitiligo.

Lemon-broucher
Visit AyurvedicOils.com for more information on the traditional ayurvedic and aromatherapeutic uses of Lemon Oil. Learn about the natural chemical components that give Lemon Oil its fragrance and therapeutic characteristics.

Referred to as ‘Golden Apple’ in the Indian subcontinent, Lemon is a traditional remedy for many health disorders and is often called as a panacea for its ability to heal the mind and the body in manifold ways. The essential oil of Lemon is cold pressed from the external rind or peel of the Lemon fruits.

Known as Nimbuka, Jambira and Dantashata in Ayurveda, Lemon is a popular Ayurvedic remedy that is used in medicine, food and also in the process of purification. It is used for stimulating the nervous system, improve concentration power, enhance immunity, purify blood and support digestion.

Lemon and its essential oil is a popular ingredient of many Ayurvedic weight loss remedies and lemon juice taken with lukewarm water in empty stomach in the morning is said to reduce fat deposits and eliminate toxins from the body.

Reference Links Substantiating the Possible Skin Issues of Lemon Oil:

  1. A study of the phototoxicity of lemon oil by Naganuma M, Hirose S and Nakayama Y, Nakajima K and Someya T, published in the Archives of Dermatological Research and PubMed
  2. Essential Oil Safety: A Guide for Health Care Professionals By Robert Tisserand, Rodney Young
  3. Leung’s Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients, used in Food, Drugs and Cosmetics by Ikhlas A. Khan and Ehab A. Abourashed.
  4. Citrus limon, American Herbal Products Association’s Botanical Safety Handbook, Second Edition by Zoe Gardner, Michael McGuffin
  5. Lemon oil side effects by WebMD
  6. Safety Information on Essential Oils by the National Association for Holistic Aromatherapy

Thought for the day:

When fate hands you a lemon, make lemonade.

– Dale Carnegie

Suggested Reading:

  1. HEALING POWERS OF LEMON OIL (The Aromatherapy Professional: Healing with Essential Oils) by KG Stiles
  2. Lemon: 50 Plus Recipes for Skin Care, Hair Care, Home and Laundry Cleaning along with Lemonade, Vegan, Curd, Chicken, Cookies, Cakes and Desserts by Pamesh Y
  3. How to Use Lemon Essential Oil (Aromatherapy) by Miriam Kinai
  4. Ayurveda & Aromatherapy: The Earth Essential Guide to Ancient Wisdom and Modern Healing by Dr. Light Miller, Dr. Bryan Miller
  5. Essential Oil Safety, Second Edition by Robert Tisserand and Rodney Young

Reference Links:

  1. 35 Health Benefits of Lemon – Ayurveda Details by Dr JV Hebbar MD (Ayu) in Easy Ayurveda
  2. Lemon by Wikipedia
  3. Health Benefits of Lemon Essential Oil by Alternative Medicine, About.Com
  4. The Benefits of Lemon Oil on Skin by Livestrong.Com
Your resource for quality Essential Oils. Every batch is GC tested to ensure purity and authenticity.

Grapefruit Pink Essential Oil

Grapefruit Pink Essential Oil – Possible Skin Issues:

Greener Life Diamond – Bio-Healthy Score => 3 – Possible Skin Issues:

Maximum dermal use level: 4% to avoid phototoxicity

The International Fragrance Association (IFRA) recommends that Grapefruit oil be limited to 4% (about 24 drops per ounce of any other carrier oils) for leave-on products like ointments, creams, and lotions used on skin exposed to sunlight. There is no restriction for body washes, shampoos, soaps, and other wash-off products because the oil does not remain on the skin.

Learn more about the Greener Life Diamond and the benefits of the Greener Life Club

Grapefruit oil has photosensitive effects if oxidized, contributing to its phototoxic, photo-carcinogenic, sensitizing properties. The possible skin issues of using Grapefruit oil are hyperpigmentation, allergic reactions, irritation, sunburns, blisters and rashes.  These reactions mainly occur when the skin is exposed to visible sunlight within 12 hours of use.

The underlying reason is the reaction of the photoactive chemical constituents in Grapefruit oil that attracts light and leads to toxicity through molecular changes in the skin surface. Certain studies state that Grapefruit oil  promotes the formation of tumors on the skin of mouse, by the key carcinogen, 10-dimethyl-l, 2-benzanthracene.

Buy Grapefruit Pink Essential Oil – 4oz – CLICK HERE
Buy Grapefruit Pink Essential Oil – 1KG – CLICK HERE

The primary chemical component responsible for the phototoxic and adverse skin effects of Grapefruit oil is Limonene, which accounts to about 90% of this oil along with few other furanocoumarins ( the non-volatile compounds like bergapten, bergamottin and epoxy-bergamottin.)

The safe dilution level of Grapefruit oil by the International Fragrance Association (IFRA) is 4%, which is about 24 drops per ounce of any mild carrier oils. This is particularly to prevent phototoxicity in products used for dermal applications except for bath products like soaps, shampoos and other wash-off preparations.

According to the European decree, essential oils that contain furanocoumarins must be used preferably when the level of bergapten does not exceed 15 ppm (parts per million) in finished cosmetic products intended for use on parts of the skin that are in contact with sunlight (other than rinse-away products) and 1 ppm in bronzing and sun protection products.

Grapefruit oil should be used only for topical application, preferably blended with mild carrier oils (good for use after a patch test on your skin). Never use essential oils for ingestion, as internal use of essential oils might pose adverse health effects. Undiluted Grapefruit oil can cause skin irritation and this oil is claimed to be toxic to cats.

A 2005 study published in Brain Research states that “the scent of Grapefruit oil and its active constituent, limonene affects the autonomic neurotransmission and blood pressure through central histaminergic nerves and the suprachiasmatic nucleus.”

Studies state that ingesting furocoumarins may also cause phytophotodermatitis. It is better to avoid Grapefruit oil if you are pregnant or breastfeeding as the safety of this oil during carrying or nursing are not established.

In a much similar way like Bitter orange oil, Grapefruit oil is said to restrain important enzymes in the intestines and liver, leading to have an impact on the blood levels at the time of taking medicines that are antidepressant, antiviral, anti-anxiety, calcium channel blockers, steroids, anti-malarial, immune modulators, prokinetics, statins and on par with caffeine intake. The presence of furocoumarins has led to the term ‘Grapefruit effect’, which signifies the interaction between furocoumarins and enzymes that are engaged in drug metabolism, specifically cytochrome P450.

Use Grapefruit oil only after medical advice, if you are taking any other prescription medicines. Startlingly, furocoumarins are also used in different remedies along with long-wave ultraviolet light therapy for treatng psoriasis, mycosis fungoides and vitiligo.

Grape-fruit-broucher
Visit AyurvedicOils.com for more information on the traditional ayurvedic and aromatherapeutic uses of Grapefruit Pink Oil. Learn about the natural chemical components that give Grapefruit Pink Oil its fragrance and therapeutic characteristics.

The traditional remedial values of this oil are antidepressant, antiseptic, anti-tumoral, antioxidant, lymphatic, stimulant, tonic, diuretic, disinfectant, aperitif and fat dissolving.

Reference Links Substantiating Possible Skin Issues of Grapefruit Oil:

  1. The Safe Grapefruit? By The American Botanical Council
  2. Olfactory stimulation with scent of essential oil of grapefruit affects autonomic neurotransmission and blood pressure by Tanida M, Niijima A, Shen J, Nakamura T, Nagai K, Osaka University, Japan, published in Brain Research
  3. Grapefruit by Essential Oil Safety: A Guide for Health Care Professionals By Robert Tisserand, Rodney Young
  4. Grapefruit Oil by Leung’s Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients, used in Food, Drugs and Cosmetics by Ikhlas A. Khan and Ehab A. Abourashed
  5. Major Furocoumarins in grapefruit juice II: phototoxicity, photogenotoxicity, and inhibitory potency vs. cytochrome P450 3A4 activity by Messer A, Raquet N, Lohr C, Schrenk D, University of Kaiserslautern, Germany, published in Food and Chemical Toxicology: An International Journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  6. Grapefruit Juice and Medicines by the University of Michigan Health System
  7. Two Major Grapefruit Juice Components Differ in Time to Onset of Intestinal CYP3A4 Inhibition by Mary F. Paine, Anne B. Criss and Paul B. Watkins, published in the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

Thought for the day:

You forget that the fruits belong to all and that the land belongs to no one.
-Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Suggested Reading:

  1. The Grapefruit Solution: Lower Your Cholesterol, Lose Weight and Achieve Optimal Health with Nature’s Wonder Fruit by Daryl L. Thompson, M. Joseph Ahrens
  2. Ayurveda & Aromatherapy: The Earth Essential Guide to Ancient Wisdom and Modern Healing by Dr. Light Miller, Dr. Bryan Miller
  3. The Complete Master Cleanse: A Step-by-Step Guide to Maximizing the Benefits of the Lemonade Diet by Tom Woloshyn
  4. The Grapefruit Diet Plan by M Marose
  5. Daily Aromatherapy: Transforming the Seasons of Your Life with Essential Oils by Joni Keim, Ruah Bull
  6. Essential Oil Safety, Second Edition by Robert Tisserand and Rodney Young

Reference Links:

  1. Free-radical theory of aging by Wikipedia
  2. Grapefruit by Wikipedia
  3. Health Benefits of Grapefruit by Ayurvedaservices.Net
  4. Health Benefits of Grapefruit Essential Oil by Organic Facts
  5. The Amazing Benefits of Pink Grapefruit Essential Oil by Natural News.Com
Your resource for quality Essential Oils. Every batch is GC tested to ensure purity and authenticity.

Cumin Seed Oil

Cumin Seed Oil Possible Skin Issues:

cumin-seed-oil

Greener Life Diamond – Bio-Healthy Score => 3 Possible Skin Issues:

Maximum dermal use level: 0.4% to avoid phototoxicity

The International Fragrance Association (IFRA) recommends that Cumin Seed oil be limited to 0.4% (about 2.4 drops per ounce of any other carrier oils) for leave-on products like ointments, creams, and lotions used on skin exposed to sunlight. There is no restriction for body washes, shampoos, soaps, and other wash-off products because the oil does not remain on the skin.

Learn more about the Greener Life Diamond and the benefits of the Greener Life Club.

Black seeds or Nigella sativa is an annual flowering plant and is indigenous to southwest Asian countries. The earliest archaeological evidence about this medicinal herb is said to have been found in the ancient Egypt in many places including the Tutankhamun’s tomb, where the Egyptian Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty was entombed with Black cumin seeds.

Also known as ‘Black Seed Oil’, Black Cumin Seed Oil has been used as an all-purpose medicinal oil for centuries in Asia and Middle Eastern countries, especially for skin problems. According to a hadith of Islam, the Prophet Mohammed said, “… the black granules (kalonji) are the remedy for all diseases except death.”

The essential oil of Cumin is said to have phototoxic effects, which may lead to allergic reactions, mild skin irritation, sunburn, blisters and hyperpigmentation when the skin is exposed to direct light from the sun with increased use of dermal application of Cumin oil (more than the safe level) for up to 12 hours after use. The major chemical constituents held responsible for the adverse skin effects of Cumin oil are Cuminaldehyde and certain other phenols.

According to the International Fragrance Association, the safe and maximum level of dermal use of Cumin oil is 0.4%. Photosensitivity and other associated skin defects are said to occur when the safe limit of Cumin oil is exceeded and is used on the parts of the skin that are exposed to visible sunshine. This is applicable only for leave-on products like creams, massage blends, ointments and lotions and not for rinse-off products like bath preparations.

Cumin oil has the status of Generally Recognized as Safe by the FDA. The Research Institute of Fragrance Materials (RIFM) reports about 5% No-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) for phototoxic effects on volunteers for Cumin seed oil.

Buy Black Cumin Seed Oil – 4oz – CLICK HERE

Never use Cumin oil in an undiluted manner and ensure that you always blend essential oils with appropriate carrier oils as pure essential oils are highly concentrated and might cause adverse effects on the skin, eyes and the system.

The National Association For Holistic Aromatherapy (NAHA) cites Cumin oil as a photosensitizer and dermal irritant thus it is always recommended to use in a diluted form and should be avoided on damaged skin, eyes, allergic skin conditions and inflammatory parts.

Cumin seed oil is prescribed safe only for topical applications and not for internal use. Certain animal studies have concluded that overdose of Cumin seeds proved anti-fertility activity. Cumin seeds, due to their emmenagogue properties were proved to exhibit mild abortifacient activity, when tested on rats with the gestational age of 8 to 12 days with aqueous cumin extracts.

These seeds were proved to cause anaphylactic reactions on overdose. Caution should be taken in using Cumin oil, if you have a history of irritation or inflammation of the kidneys. It is also said that Cumin seeds may also cause low blood sugar so it is best to avoid the use of Cumin oil prior to 2 weeks before and after any surgical conditions.

Avoid Cumin oil if you are pregnant or getting ready to conceive as Cumin oil has abortifacient and anti-fertility effects, when used more than the prescribed level can end up in miscarriage, stimulate menstruation or premature labor and might delay the chances of getting pregnant.

Black-cumin-oil-broucher
Visit AyurvedicOils.com for more information on the traditional ayurvedic and aromatherapeutic uses of Black Cumin Seed Oil. Learn about the natural chemical components that give Black Cumin Seed Oil its therapeutic characteristics.

Reference Links Substantiating the Possible Skin Issues of Cumin Oil:

  1. Cumin, American Herbal Products Association’s Botanical Safety Handbook, Second Edition by Zoe Gardner, Michael McGuffin
  2. Essential Oil Safety: A Guide for Health Care Professionals By Robert Tisserand, Rodney Young
  3. Cumin by Drugs.com
  4. Cumin side effects and safety by WebMD
  5. Safety Information on Essential Oils by the National Association For Holistic Aromatherapy

Thought for the day:

Joy in looking and comprehending is nature’s most beautiful gift. -Albert Einstein

Suggested Reading:

  1. Ayurveda & Aromatherapy: The Earth Essential Guide to Ancient Wisdom and Modern Healing by Dr. Light Miller, Dr. Bryan Miller
  2. Fragrance & Wellbeing: Plant Aromatics and Their Influence on the Psyche by Jennifer Peace Rhind
  3. Cumin & Coriander: A celebration of everyday North Indian cooking by Archana Nirad
  4. Cumin (Cuminum cyminum): Production and Processing from Science Publishers
  5. Curry Leaves and Cumin Seeds: A Healthier Approach to Indian Cooking by Jeeta Gandhi
  6. Essential Oil Safety, Second Edition by Robert Tisserand and Rodney Young

Reference Links:

  1. Cumin by Wikipedia
  2. Cumin from Ayurveda and Aromatherapy by Light Miller and Bryan Miller
  3. Cumin (Cuminum Cyminum) as a potential source of antioxidants by Muhammad Nadeem and Asad Riaz from the National Institute of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
  4. A 2011 study on Cuminum Cyminum and Carum Carvi by R.K.Johri as published in PubMed.
  5. A 2009 article on Delay of diabetic cataract in rats by the antiglycating potential of Cumin through modulation of alpha-crystallin chaperone activity.
Your resource for quality Essential Oils. Every batch is GC tested to ensure purity and authenticity.